CAERLAVEROCK Near Bankend, Dumfries and Galloway [84] NY Churchyard (Parish Church) - PDF Free Download (2023)


1 CAERLAVEROCK Near Bankend, Dumfries and Galloway [84] NY Churchyard (Parish Church) A striking stone commemorates Old Mortality who died at Bankend in the parish, being laid to rest here after a lifetime dedicated to the memory of the Covenanting Martyrs. The stone was financed by one of Paterson s greatest admirers - Sir Walter Scott. Take the Bankend road southeast from Dumfries and find Caerlaverock Church around 6 miles on to your left. 1 Caerlaverock churchyard (back of Old Mortality s grave in foreground). Grave of Old Mortality (Robert Paterson). Robert Paterson renewed graves of Covenanters. 1 Nithsdale Covenanting Trail. Nithsdale Tourist Association. 163

2 TO THE MEMORY OF ROBE RT PATERSON. THE OLD MORTALITY OF SIR WALTER SCOTT. WHO WAS BURIED HE RE FEBRUARY Inscription on Old Mortality s grave. W H Y S E E K D HE W I T H UN W E A RI E D T O I L, T H RO U G H D E A T H S D I M W A L K S T O U R G E HI S W A Y ; RE C L A I M HI S L O N G A C C E P T E D S P O I L, A N D L E A D O B L I V I O N I N T O D A Y BALMACLELLAN - Places Index, Volume III, pp DUMFRIES - Places Index, Volume III, pp In Old Mortality s Footsteps - Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, pp Location Map 2 Covenanting Sites in Nithsdale, No Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, p 19 NEWTON STEWART - Places Index, Volume III, p 870 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter No. 76, June 2001, front cover Wilson, Ian. CAIRN FARM (See MEIKLE WASTELAND) 164

3 CAIRNDERRY Near Glentrool, Dumfries and Galloway [76] NX Farm Cairnderry - home during Covenanting times of George and John McClurges, both of whom signed the Minnigaff Covenant. *Morton, A. S. p 471 CAIRNHARROW Near Anwoth, Dumfries and Galloway [83] NX Hill Cairnharrow Hill. John Bell of Whiteside used to hide in a cave on this hill. Attribution: Anthony O Neill Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p

4 CAITLOCH Near Moniaive, Dumfries and Galloway [78] NX House Caitloch House - used for the meeting and hiding place of Covenanters. The house was owned by William Fergusson. He fled to Holland (about 1685) for his adherence to the Covenant. The house was seized by the authorities and used for a time as a garrison, but rescinded after the Restoration. Another Ferguson Alexander escaped the dragoons. Rev. John Blackadder lived here for a time after being ejected from his ministry in 1662 at Troqueer. Elizabeth Hunter, Lady of Caitloch and wife of William Fergusson, was exiled to Holland. She died there. Blocked off escape route in the cellar of Caitloch House. Close-up of the cave at end of tunnel from Caitloch House, where Covenanters escaped. 166

5 Cave entrance (at left) from tunnel leading to river, from Caitloch House. FERGUSSON, Alexander - People Index, Volume II, p 92 *Howie, John. Volume I. pp 500 ff Location Map 4 Caitloch House - Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, p 21 Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. pp 28, 114, Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 50 Orr, Brian, J. Simpson, Rev. R. p 274. *Simpson, Rev. R. pp CALDER (Calder, Mid Calder and East Calder 1 ) Near Livingston, West Lothian [65] NT & NT Town East Calder. Attribution: Richard Webb Mid Calder. Attribution: Kevin Rae 1 There now appears to be a Mid, East and West Calder, but no Calder and Rev. J. H. Thompson lists the towns as being in Mid Lothian, but the boundary lines have now shifted and the towns are currently situated in West Lothian. 167

6 COVENANTERS FROM THE PARISHES OF CALDER AND MID AND EAST CALDER (Calder) James Steel, Thomas Gilchrist, James Graze and Alexander Russel perished in the Crown of London shipwreck at Deerness. (Mid-Calder) John Brown and Alexander Murray perished in the Crown of London shipwreck at Deerness. (East Calder) Alexander Bissit. David Samuel (East Calder) survived the shipwreck. David Somervil (East Calder) was present at the Battle of Bothwell Bridge. William Adamson (Mid Calder) was transported to the plantations as a slave in John Bryce was hanged at Mauchline in CALDERMILL Near Strathaven, South Lanarkshire [71] NS Field and Well Trumpeter s Well, Caldermill. This stands near the roadside on the A71 between Drumclog and Strathaven. It is marked on the signpost as Covenanter Trail. No other indication as to its origin is given. THE TRUMPETER S WELL Many of our members made objections to the application to open a huge gravel and sand quarry close to this small piece of Covenanter history. Our fear was that it would be swept away once the large earth-moving machines started work on the site. I think it is safe to say that our objections have borne fruit, as the Planning Application Report now incorporates a stand-off distance of 30 metres in order to protect the Trumpeter s Well, and its landscaping. We had nominated David Bryce of Hamilton to speak at the public hearing of objections, but this is now not necessary, as our misgivings about this memorial have been removed. Many thanks to all who contributed towards this successful objection. 1 1 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 68, September 1998, p 5 168

7 Campbell, T. Standing Witnesses. pp 78, 175 Location Map 3 - Covenanting Sites in Avondale - Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, p 20 Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 65 Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p CALDONS Glentrool, near Newton Stewart, Dumfries and Galloway [77] NX Woods At Caldons, on the south-west side of Glentrool, a stone marks the burial place of James and Robert Duns, Thomas and John Stevenson, James McClive and Andrew McCall who were killed in Caldons farmhouse by Colonel Douglas, who surprised the group whilst at worship in January This memorial is said to be the first erected by Old Mortality. 1 Covenanters grave in Caldons Wood, Glentrool. The Caldons Wood headstone can be found in a clearing near the Forestry Commission s Caldons campsite, at the western tip of Loch Trool, north of Newton Stewart. It marks the spot where, on the 23 rd January 1685, six Covenanters are said to have been killed at the hands of Colonel James Douglas and a brigade of redcoats. According to A Cloud of Witnesses, the martyrology compiled by the United Societies and first published in 1714, the men were praying together in a nearby farmhouse when they were surprised by the troops. One Covenanter is said to have escaped by running into the nearby loch and standing up to his head in water, hidden by the reeds, until the event was over. The men were probably shot for refusing to swear the Oath of Abjuration, in effect an oath of loyalty to the Crown. The inscription, which is similar to many others in the region, says that the men were killed... for their adherence to Scotland s reformation Covenants National and Solemn League Covenanting Sites. 2 Wilson, Iain. p

8 Inscription on Covenanters grave (1) at Caldons Wood. Inscription (2) on Covenanters grave. Inscription on reverse of Covenanters grave. 170

9 These gravestones are in part of the grounds of the house in which these six men were shot. Some of the Covenanters escaped, one, a brother to James and Robert Duns, ran into the nearby Loch Trool. Here he stood in freezing cold water, hidden among reeds. A young woman helped him out of the water later and took him into her house near the Loch. It is amazing that he did not die of the fever that developed, or of pneumonia. Not only did he survive, but he married the young woman who had saved and nursed him. 1 May Dunbar, the daughter of Sir David Dunbar of Baldoon Castle, was forced to live in the wilds because of her Covenanting beliefs. Somehow she managed to escape the shooting at Caldons. 1 Galloway Forest Park, Forestry Commission,

10 1 1 Starling, Peter, D. 172

11 A poster displayed in Caldons Wood (information typed below). The COVENANTERS Historical Background The Covenanters were Scottish Presbyterians who objected to English Episcopalian interference in their worship. They were called Covenanters because they supported the National Covenant of 1638 which pledged opposition to the English bishops. When Charles II was restored in 1660 many ministers left their parishes and held illegal open air conventicles. Troops were sent in and violence erupted on both sides. Known locally as the killing times, one of the main persecutors of the Covenanters was John Graham of Claverhouse or Bloody Clavers. Hundreds of Covenanters marched on Edinburgh, but they were dispersed at the Battle of Rullion Green in the Pentland Hills on 22 November The Covenanters were routed again at Bothwell Bridge in 1670, and at Airds Moss, near Cumnock in In the same year William and Mary came to the throne, reissued the laws in an attempt to unite the country and the area became more peaceful. Places of Interest in Dumfries and Galloway 1. Portpatrick - Many Covenanters sailed from this once busy harbour to safety in Ireland. Others sailed from Leith as slaves for America. 2. New Luce - Alexander Peden was minister here from He then preached in the Galloway hills. 3. Linn s Tomb (NX244725) Said to have been a shepherd from New Luce, Alexander Linn was shot by dragoons near this spot. 4. Glenvernoch - (NX346753) Home of Margaret Wilson who was tied to a stake in Wigtown Bay and drowned by the incoming tide. The house was used to garrison soldiers and her father suffered man indignities. 5. Martyrs Tomb, Caldons (NX397788) A memorial in the woods commemorates six Covenanters surprised at prayer and immediately shot. 6. Largmore (NX570823) Home of John Gordon. Wounded at the Battle of Rullion Green. He reached home but died soon after. He is buried at Kells Churchyard, 400m north of New Galloway. His son Roger (who fought at Bothwell) had many narrow escapes from dragoons in this vicinity. 173

12 7. Earlstoun Castle (3 km north of Dalry) William Gordon of Earlstoun was killed near Bothwell, his son Alexander escaped and was free until 1683 when he was sentenced to death at Edinburgh. He was reprieved and released in St John s Town of Dalry The Pentland Rising started here in Ardoch Farm (NX634832) Robert Stewart of Ardoch was present when James MacMichael slew the curate of Carsphairn. Hunted down on Auchencloy Hill, Stewart and John Grier are now buried in Dalry churchyard. 10. Stroanpatrick (NX644920) A suspected informer by the name of Roan was killed near here by James MacMichael whilst trying to escape from a group of Covenanters. 11. Allan s Cairn (NS698008) George Allan and Margaret Gracie were shot on the Fawns of Altry, an area of open moorland 1km east of the Whig s Hole (NS671000) a place for open-air conventicles. The monument was placed on the nearby junction of three parish boundaries. 12. Sanquhar A tall obelisk in the High Street lies on the site of the old town cross where the Rev. Richard Cameron affixed the Sanquhar Declaration in Glendyne (3 km W of Brandleys Cottage) This glen was much more wooded when Peden The Prophet used it as a hiding place. 14. Martyrs Knowe, Cogshead (NS834128) Three Covenanters captured by the Laird of Drumlanrig and his soldiers made their escape here in a thunderstorm. 15. Enterkin Burn (SW side of Lowther Hill) (i) In 1684 James McMichael, James Harkness and other Covenanters fired upon a group of soldiers who gave up their prisoners and fled. (ii) In 1685 McMichael s brother Daniel was shot at the foot of the Dalveen Pass (iii) A few years later six Covenanters who had escaped form Edinburgh were passing through the glen and effected the escape of two more prisoners. Some other Covenanters Memorials in Dumfries and Galloway DUMFRIES Troqueer Church: a tablet to Rev Blackadder who died during imprisonment on the Bass Rock. Whitesands: a plaque to James Kirko, shot in Dumfries. KIRKCUDBRIGHT The churchyard has a memorial to two hanged and beheaded Covenanters. WIGTOWN A tall obelisk commemorates two women who were drowned for their faith: Margaret Wilson, aged 18, and Margaret McLauchlan aged 63. Three other martyrs are buried here. MONIAIVE A tall obelisk to James Renwick, born here in 1662 MOFFAT A roadside memorial at the Devils Beeftub commemorates John Hunter of Corehead 174

13 AIRDS MOSS - Places Index, Volume III, pp 7-12 ALLAN, George - People Index, Volume II, p 6 ALTRY HILL - Places Index, Volume III, p 21 AUCHENCLOY - Places Index, Volume III, pp Barr, J. p 176 BASS ROCK - Places Index, Volume III, pp BLACKADDER, Rev. John - People Index, Volume II, pp BOTHWELL BRIDGE - Places Index, Volume III, pp CAMERON, Richard - People Index, Volume II, pp Campbell, T. p 54 CARSPHAIRN - Places Index, Volume III, pp CHARLES II - People Index, Volume II, pp CLAVERHOUSE, John Graham - People Index, Volume II, pp COVENANT, The National - Miscellaneous Index, Volume IV, p 16 CRAIGMODDIE - Places Index, Volume III, pp CUMNOCK - Places Index, Volume III, pp DEVIL S BEEF TUB - Places Index, Volume III, pp DUNS, Rodger - People Index, Volume II, p 85 EDINBURGH - Places Index, Volume III, pp Galloway Forest Park Glentrool Visitor Centre, Forestry Commission, March 2001 GORDON, Alexander - People Index, Volume II, p 116 GORDON, John - People Index, Volume II, p 120 GORDON, William - People Index, Volume II, p 123 GRACIE, Margaret - People Index, Volume II, p 126 GRIERSON, John - People Index, Volume II, p 132 HARKNESS, James - People Index, Volume II, p 144 HUNTER, John - People Index, Volume II, p 159 In Old Mortality s Footsteps - Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, pp Location Map 1- Covenanting Sites in Dumfries and Galloway, No Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, p 18 KIRKO, James - People Index, Volume II, p 179 LINN, Alexander - People Index, Volume II, p 190 Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. pp Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 101 McLAUCHLAN, Margaret - People Index, Volume II, p 229 McMICHAEL, Daniel - People Index, Volume II, pp McMICHAEL, James - People Index, Volume II, p 234 Orr, Brian, J. PEDEN, Rev. Alexander - People Index, Volume II, pp PENTLAND RISING - Miscellaneous Index, Volume IV, pp RENWICK, James - People Index, Volume II, p 312 ROAN FELL - Places Index, Volume III, p 942 RULLION GREEN - Places Index, Volume III, pp ST. JOHN S TOWN OF DALRY - Places Index, Volume III, pp STEWART, Robert - People Index, Volume II, p 353 *Thomson, Rev. J. H. A Cloud of Witnesses. pp 539, 609 *Thomson, Rev. J. H. Martyr Graves. pp URQUHART, Captain - People Index, Volume II, p 370 WIGTOWN - Places Index, Volume III, pp WILSON, Margaret - People Index, Volume II, p

14 CALDOW Near Balmaclellan, Dumfries and Galloway [77/84] NX Farm Caldow - home during Covenanting times of fugitive, William McMillan. *Minute Book. pp *Morton, A. S. pp 230, , 374 *Wodrow, Rev. Robert. Volume IV. p 122 CALDWELL TOWER Near Hall, East Renfrewshire [64] NS Tower Caldwell Tower, all that is left of Caldwell Castle, the home of Covenanters William and Barbara Mure. Image copyright: Stevie Douglas and used with permission 176

15 THE WIDOW OF CALDWELL CASTLE Derek Parker and used with permission Caldwell Tower is a romantic ruin on the Gleniffer Braes between Paisley and Lugton. The medieval keep looks down from a daisy-dappled hilltop towards reed-fringed Loch Libo and the picturesque village of Uplawmoor in rural Renfrewshire. In springtime, golden garlands of celandines garb flower-festooned waysides while blazing bunches of dazzling daffodils bespangle farm gardens. But after dusk, when the setting sun sinks into its crimson cradle beyond conifercrested horizons, you sense a presence from the past descends as night s sable shroud veils the castellated tower with a melancholic mantle. It s as if Covenanting heroine Lady Barbara Mure is standing on the battlements beside you waiting for her beloved husband, William, to return from lonely exile. It was November 1666 when the devoted couple parted for the final time, never to meet again, nor be united in death s cold grasp in the family sepulchre, where they hoped to be buried side by side. A warrant was issued for the arrest of William, the Laird of Caldwell, because he attended a Covenanters conventicle at nearby Shutterflat Moor. If captured, he faced hanging, so he fled to Holland, the refuge of many Covenanters. On Barbara and William s last night together, they stood on Caldwell Castle s turreted walkway and gazed across the moonlit countryside where years earlier they first promised undying love. They reminisced on how they met and how they would be together again when happier times returned and the Killing Times were over. But their dreams were dashed. Because, after escaping to Holland via Ireland, William died broken-hearted in Rotterdam on 9 th February Barbara suffered terrible hardship and deprivation. She was imprisoned for three years without trial in Blackness Castle, on the Firth of Forth. There she languished in what historians described as that great brute mass of masonry where degraded and brutalised prisoners were incarcerated in a notorious dungeon called the Pit. The captives had no sanitation. The only slopping-out was done by the twice-daily ebb and flow of the tide that gushed into the cold cell from the sea and threatened to drown the prisoners. Although rank and nobility saved Lady Mure from cruel tortures inflicted on less aristocratic prisoners, she suffered the agony of being parted from her daughter, Anne, and not allowed to comfort her when the girl lay dying. During William s exile and Barbara s imprisonment, Caldwell Castle was ransacked and partially demolished by the enemies of the Covenant. Subsequently restored to the family after William s premature death, another daughter and her husband built an elegant new mansion at nearby Hall of Caldwell with stones salvaged from the old castle. They restored Caldwell Tower as a monument to William and Barbara whose lives were devastated by unbearable separation in their final years. And it is on that tower, according to local legend, that Barbara Mure, the tragic heroine of Caldwell Castle, is said to still walk, the nighttime battlements, lamenting the daughter she could not be with in death, and waiting forlornly for the husband who will never return. 1 *Anderson, Rev. James. pp Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No.87, February 2005, pp

16 CALGOW Near Minnigaff, Dumfries and Galloway [83] NX Farm Calgow - home during Covenanting times to Robert McChouchtie. Attribution: Andy Farrington *Morton, A. S. p 475 CALLY CASTLE Near Gatehouse of Fleet, Dumfries and Galloway [83] NX Castle The ruins of Cally Castle - once home to John Lennox and his son, Alexander Lennox, both members of the Covenanters War Committee. *Morton, A. S. pp 354,

17 CAMBUSLANG South Lanarkshire [64] NS Church (Parish Church) Cambuslang Old Parish Church. Robert Fleming was minster here ( ) before being ejected and imprisoned. He escaped to Holland, where he died in Attribution: Iain Thompson HMS&id=44897 CAMBUSNETHAN Near Wishaw, North Lanarkshire [64] NS Old Graveyard The dark, gloomy and wrecked old graveyard at Cambusnethan, where Covenanter Arthur Inglis is buried. 179

18 Arthur Inglis grave is in this enclosure. 1 A NEW COVENANTER MEMORIAL Arthur Inglis, a pious, sober, honest man was tending his cattle at Stockleton Dyke 2, when he was espied by a party of dragoons under Claverhouse. He was immediately put to death, as he was seen to be reading his Bible (proof, in those days, of the reader being a rebel). This cruel murder took place on the 23 rd June, 1679, on the morning after the Battle of Bothwell Bridge, when bloodthirsty Royalist troops were scouring the area to mop-up the fleeing Covenanters armies. Over the years Inglis s memorials in Cambusnethan s old burial ground have been badly vandalised, and some years ago the remaining pieces of the stones were removed to prevent further damage. Now, at the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland, in Kenilworth Avenue, Wishaw, a new memorial has arisen. The Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association has not been responsible for this work. It has all been achieved through local efforts - the church people themselves, the Scottish Co-operative Funeral Society, and the local council, to mention only three. The memorial takes the form of a large masonry cairn on which is inset a plaque, giving the history of the martyrdom. Close by is a plinth supporting an open book, carved in marble. This has been beautifully modelled and inscribed. The left-hand page gives the inscription and the other page shows the verse, both of which appeared on the previous memorial, erected in The entire memorial area is contained within a masonry-enclosed garden and this development is a joy to behold, and is well worth a visit. The memorial was unveiled on 25 th July last, by the Lord Lieutenant of Lanarkshire, Hutchinson B. Sneddon, C.B.E. J.P. and guests included office-bearers of S.C.M.A. who thoroughly enjoyed the ceremony and a hospitable meal in the church afterwards. We have just learned that the minister of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, the Rev. David Fallows, will be arranging an annual conventicle at the new memorial each June. 3 1 For inscription on grave, see WISHAW 2 I have been unable to ascertain the exact location of Stockleton Dyke 3 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 68, September 1998, p 5 180

19 OTHER COVENANTERS FROM THE PARISH OF CAMBUSNETHAN Alexander and James Gray, brothers. James set off to join the Battle of Bothwell Bridge, but heard of the Covenanters defeat before he arrived at the site of the battle. Robert Paterson was killed at the Battle of Airds Moss. William Paterson (Robert s son) was shot at Strathaven Castle. William Scular survived the Crown of London shipwreck at Deerness. Alexander Smith was present at the Battle of Bothwell Bridge. James Gourlay was a farmer who was present at the Battles of Drumclog and Bothwell Bridge. He was banished to West Flanders It is thought that he might have been buried at Cambusnethan, but the location of his grave is uncertain. Sir Thomas Steuart M.P. is also said to be buried in the graveyard. His memorial is at Carnwath in Lanarkshire. Campbell, T. pp Location Map 5 Covenanting sites in the Clyde Valley - Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, p 22 Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 73 Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 50 Orr, Brian, J. Simpson, Rev. R. p 246. *Simpson, Rev. R. pp *Thomson, Rev. J. H. Martyr Graves. pp CAMER Near Penninghame, Dumfries and Galloway [76/77] NX Farm Camer - home during Covenanting times of James McQuhardge and Alexander Thomson, who signed the Minnigaff Covenant. *Morton, A. S. p

20 CAMPSIE FELLS Near Kirkintilloch, East Dunbartonshire [64] NS Old Churchyard (St. Machan s) Campsie Fells - Covenanters often hid from the Royalist troops in these hills. Image copyright: Dave Forbes 2008 and used with permission St. Machan s churchyard at Clachan of Campsie. 182

21 ERECTED IN MEMORY OF WILLIAM BOICK Who suffered at Glasgow June XIV. MDCLXXXIII For his adherence to the WORD OF GOD AND SCOTLAND S COVENANTED WORK OF REFORMATION. Underneath this stone doth lie Dust sacrificed to t yranny Yet precious in immanuel s sight Since martyred for his kingly right REV. chap. 7 verse 14 Inscription on William Boick s grave. CAMPSIE Mr. Jimmy Scott of Kirkintilloch writes from time to time to keep me informed of the state of the William Boick memorial at Campsie kirkyard. For many years Mr. Scott, and his friend, the late Robert Hoey, have lavished love and care on this stone, and Mr. Scott still cleans and washes it every spring. In autumn he also pays a visit to inspect and to check for damage. His recent report tells me that some of the smaller letters are beginning to fade, although still decipherable. He recommends some re-lettering on the stone in, say, 2-3 years. We are fortunate to have members such as Mr. Scott and the Smiths to give so freely of their time and expertise. 1 CAMPSIE AND INCHBELLY STONES Member, James Scott, has written to inform me that he continues the work of looking after these two stones, the one in Camspie kirkyard commemorating William Boick, the other commemorating James Smith and John Wharry. Work carried out included washing the stones, tidying the immediate surroundings, and removal of weeds and tree seedlings which could cause serious damage in the future. The association is indebted to members like James for the work they do - not necessarily difficult work, but enough to ensure that the memorials are kept tidy and cared for. 2 Rev. John Law was minister at Campsie. He was imprisoned on the Bass Rock. 1 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 59, September 1995, p 8 2 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 59, September 1995, p 8 183

22 Campbell, T. pp Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 100 Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 52 Orr, Brian, J. *Thomson, Rev. J. H. A Cloud of Witnesses. p 604 *Thomson, Rev. J. H. Martyr Graves. pp CAMREGAN Near Old Dailly, South Ayrshire [76] NX Farm Camregan Farm - home of Covenanter, John Stevenson, who fought in the Battle of Bothwell Bridge and survived. Covenanter, William Smith found shelter on the land of this farm when being pursued by dragoons after the Battle of Bothwell Bridge. Attribution: Oliver Dixon MARSCALLOCH MOSS - Places Index, Volume III, pp CAPERNAUM Near Drumclog, South Lanarkshire [71] NS House This was the name of a house that stood here in the days of the Covenanters. After the Battle of Drumclog, the Covenanters pursued the troops of Claverhouse to Calder Water. Thomas Finlay, armed with a pitchfork, met Claverhouse here, near Coldwakning (Kilwakening). He probably would have killed that officer had not another of the Covenanters called to Finlay to strike at the horse and thereby secure both it and the rider. The blow intended for the Captain was spent on the mare and the captain escaped by mounting, with great agility, the horse of his trumpeter who had been killed by the Covenanters. The site of the house was pointed out to surveyors in 1857 when the first Ordnance Survey of the district was made. The foundations of the house were also exposed for inspection. When the site was visited by Ordnance Survey surveyors in 1955, no trace of the building could be found. The field in which the house stood is now named Capernaum. 184

23 Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p CARCO HILL Near Sanquhar, Dumfries and Galloway [77] NS Hill Carco Hill, shrouded in mist. It could be here that Rev. Alexander Peden was safely delivered. Simpson, Rev. R. p 85 CARDONESS CASTLE Near Anwoth, near Gatehouse of Fleet, Dumfries and Galloway [83] NX Castle (ruins) Cardoness Castle. Home of John and Lady Gordon and their family. Associated with Samuel Rutherford

24 CARGENBRIDGE Near Dumfries, Dumfries and Galloway [84] NX Cave Cave used by the Covenanters as a hiding place during times of persecution. Image copyright: Walter Baxter and used with permission Another view of the Covenanters Cave. Attribution: Rod Collier Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 62 php?service=rcahms&id=65704 CARGILL S LEAP (See BLAIRGOWRIE) 186

25 CARGILSTON Near Maybole, South Ayrshire [70] NS Roadside Cargill Memorial near Cargilston Farm, Maybole. The base on which the memorial stands is part of a large rock which was used by Donald Cargill as a pulpit. It is said that he preached at this site two months before his arrest. Cargill memorial. Cargilston was the name given to the farm and surrounding area in honour of the renowned Covenanter. Of the 209 Covenanters who were drowned these are men from Maybole who lost their lives on the ship, The Crown of London, wrecked off the coast of Orkney. It carried 257 Covenanters being transported to a plantation in Barbados in the American Colonies. 187

26 Campbell, T. pp Crichton, James. The Carrick Covenanters, Cumnock: Guthrie and Sons Ltd. DEERNESS - Places Index, Volume III, pp ECCLES, Mungo - People Index, Volume II, p 86 Horne, S. & Hardie, J. B. p 21 HORNE, Thomas - People Index, Volume II, p 155 Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. pp 78, 131 Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 55 McGARRON, Robert - People Index, Volume II, p 215 McHARRIE, John - People Index, Volume II, p 221 McWHIRTER, John - People Index, Volume II, p 249 RODGER, William - People Index, Volume II, p pdf CARLINE S CO Near Kirkcudbright, Dumfries and Galloway [83/84] NX Cave Senwick Bay, Kirkcudbright Bay - remarkably, a Covenanter by the name of Dixon lived throughout the years of persecution in a small cave here. Attribution: David R. Collin 188

27 A very small cove on the west side of the River Dee, and one of the most lonely and romantic anywhere to be seen. When the bloody Grier o Lagg and the Douglas s hunted the Covenanters over hill and dale, a poor man of the name of Dixon took up his abode in Carline s Co, and lived the whole of the time that foul persecution lasted, on the shell-fish he gathered on the seashore beside him, the which he found means to broil on a fire by night: thus he eluded the foes of his clan, the foes of God and man. The mouth of the cave is quite covered with brush-wood; at the farther end, or benmost bore of it, remains yet his seat, - a square sea-stone: on it I expected to find an inscription of some kind or other, but was deceived. The Assmiden, and other remains of fire, to be met with, together with the general appearance of the cave, left no doubt on my mind but that it had been once inhabited, and for a considerable time. There sat the lanely trimmling wight Fear hardly let him draw his breath, For every hour by day and night, He dreaded that he d meet his death. A day o storm - a night fu black, War seasons whan his soul had ease; Light e er flung him on the rack, Grim terror did poor Dixon tease. He langed na for the brade bright moon, But wish d her ay ahint a clud; When morning came he griend for noon, The darker - less his heart did thud. Gif that the heron ga e a scraigh, While stegging on the saunie shore; Or shelldrake mang the craigs, a squaigh, His cauld sweat gush d frae every pore. He d shade the binwud door aside, And through the wunnock sleely peep; And whan he saw nought but the tide He hurkled ben, and hauflins fell asleep. 1 1 MacTaggart, John. The Scottish Gallovidian Encyclopedia. Bibliobazaar, L.L.C. 189

28 CARLUKE Near Lanark, South Lanarkshire [72] NS Old Churchyard (St. Luke s) Headstone of Lockhart family, including Robert. Inscription on Robert Lockhart s grave. 190


30 ALEXANDE R SMELLIE D.D MINISTER AND AUT HOR He walked with God. FRANCES ELIZABET H HIS DAUGHTE R Mabel meram quandam dulcedinem ELIZABETH HAMILT ON Grave of Alexander Smellie. HIS WIFE. He wrote Men of the Covenant Inscription on Alexander Smellie s grave. Peter Kidd s renewed (2004) grave stone. For inscription see below. Original, and vandalised, Rev. Peter Kidd s grave. Image copyright: David Roy and used with permission 1 Smellie, Alexander. Men of the Covenant. London: Banner of Truth Trust,

31 A faithful, holy past or here lies hid One of a thousand, Mr. Peter Kid, Firm as a stone, but of a heart contrit e. A wrestling, praying, weeping Israelite; A powerful preacher, far from ostentation, A son of thunder, and of consolation. His face, his speech, and humble walk bright tell That he was in the mount and Peniel. He was in Patmos, and did far surpass In fixed steadfastness the rocky Bass. His love t o Christ made his life to be spent In feeding flocks and kids beside his tent. His frail flesh could not equal paces keep With his most willing sp rit, but fell asleep. His soul s in heaven, where it was much before His flesh rests here in hopes of future glore. Passenger! Ere thou go, sigh, weep, and pray, Hel p, Lord, because the godl y do deca y. INSCRIPTION WAS RENEWED JUNE 1864 AND AGAIN IN JUNE M r KID WAS MINISTE R OF CARLUKE UNTIL CARLUKE VANDALISM AND PREVIOUSLY MINISTER OF DOUGLAS HE WAS SENT TO THE BASS 1685 AND REMAINED A PRISONER TILL 21 ST SEPT 1686 Inscription on Rev. Peter Kidd s grave. Hon. Vice Pres. David Roy reports massive vandalism to two Covenanter memorials in St. Luke s graveyard in Carluke. He has supplied photographs and information to the local newspaper, which has run a sizeable article on this sorry state of affairs. The following paragraphs and pictures are taken from David s data. David regularly visits, as is his want, nearly every Covenanter memorial in Scotland, and over the years he has watched the gradual deterioration in the conditions at this particular graveyard. His recent visit, however, has really sickened and saddened him. The table-top monument to the Rev. Peter Kidd (who was imprisoned on the Bass Rock for his non-conformity) has been broken into six pieces, and is virtually irreparable. The other memorial - to the Lockhart family - is also in a sorry state. It is a very large stone-built edifice, surrounded by railings, and it commemorates, among others, Robert Lockhart of Birkhill, who suffered severely in person and estate during the Covenanting struggle. This monument has had its railings and containing walls removed, and its foundations are now being undermined by vandalism. 193

32 As a society, we appear to be powerless to prevent such mindless acts of vandalism, and I note from the newspaper article that the Local Authority responsible for St. Luke s graveyard is unable to do anything about the matter. We can only shake our heads in sorrow, and wonder what the future holds for us. 1 REV. PETER KIDD, CARLUKE Initial investigations into the replacement of this vandalised stone are now underway. It is hoped to replace the stone with a granite replica, copying the original inscription and interesting epitaph. More information on this project will follow as the scheme gets underway. 2 CARLUKE MEMORIAL An appeal has been started in which it is hoped to raise funds for the replacement of the vandalised memorial at Carluke in memory of Rev. Peter Kidd. Letters have been sent out to local churches, groups and individuals, but at the time of writing only a few donations have been received. The cost of replacing the memorial has been estimated at 1800, mainly due to the lengthy inscription which we hope to replicate word for word. Hopefully there will be more news by the time the next newsletter reaches you. 3 PETER KIDD MEMORIAL, CARLUKE CONVENTICLE SERVICE A new memorial to Rev. Peter Kidd has been erected in Carluke old churchyard, adjacent to the old tablestone that was seriously damaged by vandals a number of years ago. The stone, which is a simple memorial in granite, copies the original inscription, which includes a lengthy but important epitaph. A conventicle has been arranged to take place in the old kirkyard on Sunday 27 th June 2004 at 3.00 pm, when the new memorial will be officially dedicated. The service will be conducted by Rev. Ian Cunningham of Kirkton Parish Church in Carluke. Members and friends are invited to attend. Please note that it is the old churchyard in Carluke where the memorial is located, with access to it from the A721 Carnwath Road, and not the later cemetery. 4 William Fiddison was a native of this parish. He was hanged at Mauchline Loan in Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 55, June 1994, p 4 2 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 80, September 2002, p 11 3 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 81, February 2003, pp Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 85, June 2004, p 5 194

33 THE PETER KIDD MEMORIAL David Roy and used with permission Recently, I received a phone call from fellow associate, John Reardon, to say that the new stone to Peter Kidd was now in place. A few days later, my wife Betty and I took a trip up to Carluke to see it. No one in this world will ever appreciate just how I felt standing beside this brand new stone, which was in pristine condition. To put it as only the Glasgow people can, It s Brilliant! It was very different from one of my inspection visits in 1993 when I found the tabletop stone smashed to bits. If you can imagine that caricature of the wee man, fuming mad and jumping up and down on his hat, then you have it. If you can imagine a mixture of fury and grief, then you have it. I have always had a habit of popping in to see a Covenanter s stone if I was nearby and this one almost drew me to tears. Uncharacteristically I was determined to make a big noise about it and that night I immediately set to and wrote up an article to express my disgust at the mindlessness of the vandals who did it. A few days later I handed it in, with photographs, to The Carluke Gazette and to my surprise it made headline news. Some soul out there responded, I know, because, shortly afterwards, the fragments were pieced together like a jigsaw puzzle at ground level; a very nice gesture and thank you to whoever you are. This stone is only one of a few that have been restored in recent times and I am sure that our founder members, Walter Storar, Wullie Stirling and Bryan Nutter would be proud of the achievements of the Association today. Happily, the work still goes on and, as George Scott has often appealed in the past, why not adopt a stone to care for, especially if you live nearby? We also lack volunteers who do not mind going out and doing a bit of cleaning and tidying up. These stones represent a glorious heritage and it behoves us to show a greater interest in the cause of the Covenanters and the freedom they have procured for us. Peter Kidd was one of these worthies. All be it an indulged minister in his day, he failed to comply with the rules laid down and for conscience sake spent some considerable months incarcerated in the old prison of the Bass Rock. He was one of those prisoners isolated from the world on the Bass, one of whom are fondly remembered as The old Saints. Why not make the effort for yourself and visit the stone at Carluke old Graveyard on the north side of the Carnwath road? 1 Horne, S. & Hardie, J. B. p 4 In Covenanting Footsteps A Car Tour of Covenanter Sites in the Clyde Valley. Lanark: Clyde Valley Tourist Board. Location Map 5 Covenanting sites in the Clyde Valley - Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, p 22 Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 72 Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. pp Orr, Brian, J. Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 85, June 2004, front cover 1 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 85, June 2004, p

34 CARNWATH South Lanarkshire [72] NS Churchyard (Parish Church) Carnwath Parish Church. Covenanters, James Couper and Thomas Crichton, both of this parish, lost their lives in the Crown of London shipwreck at Deerness. A memorial commemorating them is located within the churchyard. Image copyright: Lesley Henderson and used with permission Mural memorial on the south side of St. Mary s aisle in Carnwath Parish Church churchyard. The mural commemorates members of the Denham family, including Sir William Denham who suffered for his faith and fled to Holland. Also commemorated is Sir Thomas Steuart who was exiled for his faith. Image copyright: Walter Baxter and used with permission 196


36 Memorial (centre) to James Couper and Thomas Crichton who drowned in the Crown of London shipwreck at Deerness. Image copyright: Walter Baxter and used with permission Memorial to James Couper and Thomas Crichton. Image copyright: Walter Baxter and used with permission 198

37 SACRED TO THE MEMORY OF THOMAS CHRIGHTON AND JAMES COWPER OF CARNWART H WHO WERE TAKEN PRI SONERS AT THE BATTLE OF BOT HWE LL BRIDGE ON THE (22 MONTH) (CONFINED) FIVE MONT HS IN THE GREYFRIARS CHURCHYARD AND ALONG WITH (?) FELLOW SUFFE RERS DROWNED IN THE PENTLAND FIRT H FOR T HEIR ADHE RE NCE TO THE WORD OF GOD AND SCOT LAND S COVENANTED REFORMATION BLESSED ARE THEY WHICH ARE PIERSECUTED FOR RIGHTEOUSNESS SAKE FOR T HEIRS IS THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN Inscription on memorial. 1 Carnwath Moss [72] NS A large stone on Carnwath Moss known as Peden s Pulpit was used by Rev. Alexander Peden when preaching. 2 Image copyright: Walter Baxter and used with permission In Covenanting Footsteps A Car Tour of Covenanter Sites in the Clyde Valley. Lanark: Clyde Valley Tourist Board. Location Map 5 Covenanting Sites in Clyde Valley - Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, p 22 Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 78 Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. pp 56, 167 Orr, Brian, J. 1 The inscription is very difficult to read and the words in red indicate a bit of guesswork! 2 The stone could not be located at the time of the visit. 199

38 CARSEMINNOCH Near Creetown, Dumfries and Galloway [83] NX Farm Carseminnoch - home during Covenanting times of William McCleave, who signed the Minnigaff Covenant. *Morton, A. S. p 474 CARSENAW Near Newton Stewart, Dumfries and Galloway [83] NX Farm Carsenaw, listed as being the home during Covenanting times of John Dowane, Alexander McChuchie, Alexander McClurg and James Allan Taylor, all of whom signed the Minnigaff Covenant. 1 Attribution: James Bell *Morton, A. S. pp 474, There were probably a lot more houses in Carsenaw at the time. 200

39 CARSPHAIRN Near Newton Stewart, Dumfries and Galloway [77] NX Church and Churchyard (Parish Church) In the Churchyard, just within the gates on the left, is the stone to Rodger Duns, a Covenanter who suffered persecution but survived the Killing Times. He was murdered in June In the north-east corner is the burial place of the McAdams of Waterhead, including Gilbert McAdam and his son, James, both notable Covenanters. Gilbert was shot by King s troops near the village of Kirkmichael, Carrick, in The gravestone of Covenanter Roger Duns is located near the kirkyard gate. He survived, but was killed in a later feud. Also commemorated here are James and Gilbert McAdam, Covenanters. 2 Carsphairn Church and churchyard. The Manse was a scene involving James McMichael and others. The curate of Carsphairn, Peter Pearson, was an enemy of the Covenant. Some Covenanters entered the manse with a petition to have the cruelty being exacted on adherents of the Covenant stopped. An angry Pearson slammed and barred the door in the face of and others James (Black) McMichael including William Heron and Robert Mitchell. They forced their way in and McMichael shot the armed curate. Burial place of the McAdams of Waterhead. Image copyright: Paul Goodwin and used with Permission 1 Covenanting Sites. 2 Love, Dane. The Covenanters and St John s Town of Dalry. 201

40 Inscription on McAdams grave. Image copyright: Paul Goodwin and used with permission B URI AL P L AC E O F T H E M c A D A M S O F W AT E RH E AD A N CE ST O R S O F J O H N LO UD O N M c AD A M WHO IN VENT ED T H E S Y ST E M O F R O AD M A K ING G E N ER A LLY AD O PT E D A N D K N O WN BY H I S N A M E G ILB ERT M c AD A M A N D H I S SON J A ME S BR O T H ER IN L A W & N EP H E W O F RO G E R D U N BOT H N O T A BL E CO VE N ANT E RS W ER E B UR IED H ER E T H E FO R ME R W A S S H O T BY KIN G S T ROO P S N E A R K IR K MI CH A EL VI L L AG E Inscription on McAdams grave. Plaque to John Semple in Carsphairn Parish Church. Image copyright: Paul Goodwin and used with permission 202

41 Erect ed In Memory of Rodger Dunn who was born at Benwhat Parish of Dalmellington He suffered much persecution for the cause of Christ and was killed on the night of Carsphairn Fair June 1689 on the Farm of Brockl och. Covenanter, Rodger Duns grave at Carsphairn Churchyard. Pluck d from Minervas breast here am I laid Which debt to cruel Atropos I ve paid Resting my cla vey fa bric in the dust Among the hol y ashes of the just My soul set sail for the celestial shore Till the last trump with joy the same restore also Robert Dunn of Garryhorn died Oct 6 th 1735 Inscription on Rodger Duns grave. THE CARSPHAIRN COVENANTERS (a talk by Louise Yeoman at the Covens & Covenanters Conference, Dumfries, 11 th May 2002) This conference was briefly reviewed in the last S.C.M.A. Newsletter. Iain Wilson attended the event, which was held as part of Scottish History Week, and has provided the following summary of one of the most interesting presentations on the day. Louise Yeoman will be known to many readers for her appearances in historical documentaries on B.B.C. Scotland. However, she was formerly an archivist in the National Library in Edinburgh, where she had access to many collections of old manuscripts and letters. Her talk at the Covens and Covenanters conference was about one such collection, a cache of 25 or so records of persecution of Covenanting people in the parish of Carsphairn, in Galloway, all written around The records were apparently the result of a request by the followers of James Renwick (who later formed the United Societies, otherwise known as the Society People ) to local people to set down their experiences for posterity, but also possibly for later retribution. Many of the stories were written on scraps of paper and in the style of simple accounts. They included incidents such as minor thefts from the person, beatings, stealing of cattle, fines, etc. committed upon local residents of a rural, mainly farming community. A flavour of the accounts, and even of the voices of the people who related them can be had from the following excerpts: From James MacMillan of Braidenoch - Item about May Day 1685, about 70 of Col. Douglas his ridocats quartered a night upon me killing sheep and committing many other abuse in and about the house to the value of at least 40 scots.. From the widow of William Gordon of Dundeugh - Item the factor to my Lord Livingston after my husband s death threw me and all my family out of doors, not suffering my nurse (though the day was very stormy) to stay within doors with my sick child new taken off the breast

42 From Agnes Bannoch who had to pay ten merks to Sergeant Colloch which loss was nothing to the losse of my husband which was taken by William Kennedie,.. out of his bed which was taken to Ayr and execute... While these accounts are fascinating in their own right, Miss Yeoman s description of their subsequent treatment by historians throws an equally interesting light on the social divisions within the Covenanting movement. The accounts, it seems were known to Wodrow who had access to them when he began to write his martyrology in However, the type of persecution which they described was relatively tame by comparison with the martyrdoms of the Cameronians, and little of the detail was transcribed by Wodrow who, according to Miss Yeoman, was more interested in sensationalism. When it came to dealing with the real people and lives behind these stories, Wodrow and his circle, who were moderate Presbyterians, disliked and were embarrassed by the radical Cameronians and their followers. According to Miss Yeoman, they found it more difficult to deal with them than Episcopalians! Yeoman says that this was a social and a cultural issue - the Cameronians were seen by the Glasgow and Edinburgh elite as peasants and workers who should have been labouring in their fields, rather than wasting their time indulging in religion and insurrection. Miss Yeoman supported her thesis with some revealing anecdotes about Wodrow and a number of his professional associates. However, as readers might imagine her talk prompted some close questioning from the audience. 1 OTHER COVENANTERS FROM THE PARISH OF CARSPHAIRN John Clark was a friend of Rev. Alexander Peden. John Fraser and his wife, Marion Howatson were also of the parish. John Fraser escaped his pursuers several times and survived the Killing Times. John McCall was captured at the Battle of Rullion Green and executed in Irvine. Alexander McMillan, of Carsphairn was present at the Battle of Rullion Green. He was hanged at Ayr. James Wallace was saved from gun shot by his Bible and, surviving the Killing Times, he lived to the age of 103. He is buried in Glencairn churchyard. Horne, S. & Hardie, J. B. p 20 *Howie, John. Volume I. pp Location Map 1 Covenanting Sites in Dumfries and Galloway, No. 6 - Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, p 18 Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. pp Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. pp Orr, Brian, J. Simpson, Rev. R. pp 47-50, , *Simpson, Rev. R. pp , , ; , *Thomson, Rev. J. H. A Cloud of Witnesses. p 535 *Thomson, Rev. J. H. The Martyr Graves. pp Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 80, September 2002, pp

43 CARSTRAMON Near Gatehouse of Fleet, Dumfries and Galloway [83] NX House Carstramon House - home during Covenanting times of Alexander Gordon, who was a member of the Covenanters War Committee. Attribution: Mike J. Richardson Orr, Brian, J. CARSWADDA Near Beeswing, Dumfries and Galloway [84] NX Farm Carswadda Farm home during Covenanting times of Edward Maxwell. Attribution: Iain Shiell Orr, Brian, J. 205

44 CASSENCARRIE Near Creetown, Dumfries and Galloway [83] NX Castle (ruins) Castle Cary (Cassencarrie) probable home during Covenanting times of Richard Muir and Fergus Neilson, both members of the Covenanters War Committee. Attribution: Phillip Halling Orr, Brian, J. CASTLEFAIRN Near Moniaive, Dumfries and Galloway [77/78] NX Farm Castlefairn - James Wallace lived here for a time. He was pursued by Grierson of Lag and shot near Whitecraig, but the bullet lodged in his breast-pocket Bible, saving his life. He is buried at Glencairn. Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p

45 CASTLEGOWER Near Castle Douglas, Dumfries and Galloway [84] NX Farm Castlegower - home during Covenanting times of Roger Morrison, member of the Covenanters War Committee. *Morton, A. S. p 356 CASTLE KENNEDY Near Stranraer, Dumfries and Galloway [82] NX Castle (ruins) Ruins of Castle Kennedy, home of the first Earl of Stair, Sir James Dalrymple. Gardens of Castle Kennedy. Images copyright: Peter W. Bond and used with permission 207

46 Sir James Dalrymple was indicted for intent to treason upon some trumped up charge. He was charged with being accessory to the plot against the life of Charles I and against the crowning of Charles II. Also, he was cited as being accessory to the rebellion of 1679, and of being in association with rebels and fugitives doing favours for them. He was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle till he paid a fine of 500. He then fled to Holland. *Wodrow, Rev. Robert. Volume IV. pp =RCAHMS&id=61743 CATHCART (Old) Glasgow [64] NS Old Churchyard (Parish Church) The grave of Covenanters Thomas Cook, John Urie and Robert Thom in the churchyard of old Cathcart. THE : BLOODY : MURDERE RS : OF : THESE : MEN WERE : MAGOR : BALFOUR : AND : CAPTAIN : METLAND AND : UIT H : THEM : OTHERS : UE RE : NOT : FREE CAUSED : THEM : TO : SEARCH : IN : POLMADIE AS : SOON : AS : THEY : HAD : THEM : OUT : FOUND THEY : MURTHE RED : THEM : UIT H : SHOTS : OF : GUNS SCARCE : TIME : DID : THEY : TO : THEM : ALLOU BEFOR : THER : MAKE R : THER : KNI ES : TO : BOW MANY : LIKE : IN : THIS : LAND : HAVE : BEEN WHOS : BLOOD : FOR : WINGANCE : CRYES : TO : HEAVN THIS : CRUE LL : WICKEDNESS : YOW : SEE WAS : DON : IN : LON : OF : POLMADIE THIS : MAY : A : STANDING : WITNESS : BE TUIXT : PRISBYT RIE : AND : PRELACIE Inscription on Covenanters grave. 208

47 Barr, J. p 92 Campbell, T. pp Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 155 Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. pp Orr, Brian, J. *Thomson, Rev. J. H. A Cloud of Witnesses. pp , 571 *Thomson, Rev. J. H. The Martyr Graves. pp CAVENS Near Kirkbean, Dumfries and Galloway [84] NX House Cavens now a luxury hotel, but once a private manor house and home to Covenanter Robert Maxwell, a member of the Covenanters War Committee. Attribution: Oliver Dixon Orr, Brian, J. CAVERS Near Hawick, Scottish Borders [79] NT Village Cavers Parish Church. Attribution: Walter Baxter 209

48 Several Covenanters from Cavers perished in the Crown of London shipwreck at Deerness: John Greenshields, Richard Young, James Hopkirk and Samuel Douglas. James Leydon, John/James Glasgow, William Glasgow and James Young survived the shipwreck. Rev. James Gilon, minister of Cavers, was forced to run four miles to Edinburgh, in ill health, in the middle of the night. He died shortly afterwards. Tower (ruins) [79] NT Cavers Tower - the home of Lady Catherine Rigg and her husband, Sir William Douglas. Lady Catherine was was arrested and imprisoned in Stirling Castle from for refusing to pass the keys of the church to the curate. She supported and hid Covenanters and was fined for attending conventicles. Attribution: Walter Baxter Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 58 CESSFORD CASTLE Near Morebattle, Scottish Borders [74] NT Castle (ruins) Cessford Castle - Henry Hall of Haughhead was imprisoned here after being captured on his way to the Pentland Rising in Attribution: David Purchase Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p

49 CESSNOCK CASTLE Near Galston, East Ayrshire [70] NS Castle Home of noted Covenanter, Sir Hugh Campbell of Cessnock. Sir Hugh and his son, Sir George Campbell, were both imprisoned on the Bass Rock and Sir Hugh Campbell forfeited his estate because of his beliefs. The forfeiture was rescinded after his death (1686) in Image copyright: H. P. Gray and used with permission Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 58 Orr, Brian, J. CHALMERS BRAES Near Eaglesham, East Renfrewshire [64] NS Hill Chalmers Braes - conventicle site. Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p87 211

50 CHAPELERNE Near Old Bridge of Urr, Dumfries and Galloway [84] NX Farm Chapelerne- home during Covenanting times of fugitive, John Graham. *Morton, A. S. p 228 CHAPELHOPE Near St. Mary s Loch, Scottish Borders [79] NT House and moors Chapelhope House. 212

51 Chapelhope Pass (beginning left of house). Five soldiers were found shot here. They were from a party of men from Traquair House and were in pursuit of Covenanters. We presume, though it is not certain, that they were shot by Covenanters. If so, it would have been in desperate self-defence. Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 43 CHIRNSIDE Scottish Borders [74] NT Churchyard (Parish Church) Chirnside Parish Church - the Rev. Henry Erskine (father of Ebenezer and Ralph Erskine) was minister here and is buried in the churchyard. 213

52 Memorial to Rev. Henry Erskine. Inscription on Rev. Henry Erskine s memorial. Henry Erskine s grave (behind the memorial). 1 1 The Latin inscription on this tablestone is now virtually illegible. 214

53 IN MEMORY OF THE REVEREND HENRY E RSKINE, a descendant of the family of Mar, and sometime Minister of this Parish, who was eminently distinguished in Incorruptible Integrity in private life. Undaunted Zeal in the Service of his Hea venly Master and steady attachment to the Religious Principles often led to imprisonment and exile, both of which he himself endured with exemplary resignation and fortitude. He was born at Dryburgh in the year Ordained at Cornhill in Ejected in 1662, and Persecuted for nonconformity t o Prelacy; Admitted, soon after the Revolution in 1688, To be Minister of Chirnside, where he continued in the faithful discharge of his pastoral Duties til 10 th August 1696, when his hol y and exemplary life terminated in a peaceful and triumphant death in the 72 nd year of his age and 47 th of his ministy. His t wo younger sons, EBENEZER and RALPH ERSKINE were the Founders of the Secessi on Church. Inscription on memorial. Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p

54 CLAREMONT Near St. Andrews, Fife [59] NO Farm Woods where Covenanter, Andrew Guillane s grave stands (8 th tree from right). The Gravest one of Andreu Gullin who suffred At The gallowl ee of Edinburgh July 1683 & Aft erwards was hung upon a pole in Magus Muir and lyeth hiar. A faithful martar her doth ly A witness against perjury Who cruelly was put to death To gratify proud Prelates wrath They cut his hands ere he was dead And after that struck off his head To Magus Muir they did him bring His body on a pole did hing His bl ood under the altar cries For vengeance on Christs Enemies. Covenanter Andrew Guillane s grave. Inscription on Andrew Guillane s grave. 216

55 Campbell, T. pp 59-60, 74 Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. pp *Thomson, Rev. J. H. A Cloud of Witnesses. pp *Thomson, Rev. J. H. The Martyr Graves. pp CLAUCHRIE Near Closeburn, Dumfries and Galloway [78] NX House Clauchrie - a meeting place for Covenanters. Simpson, Rev. R. pp *Simpson, Rev. R. pp

56 CLEEVES COVE Near Dalry, North Ayrshire [63] NS Cave Entrances to Cleeves Cove, near Dalry. This was a system of caves measuring 500 feet in all used by the Covenanters as hiding places during the times of persecution. Conventicles were held in the glen above the cove. Attribution: Roger Griffith Dobie, James, D. (ed. Dobie, J.S.). p 125 Paterson, James. p

57 CLOSEBURN Near Dumfries, Dumfries and Galloway [78] NX Village Closeburn Village. It is at the Church that John Mathieson is buried. He suffered, but survived. SOME COVENANTERS CONNECTED WITH THE PARISH OF CLOSEBURN James Harkness, the leader of the Enterkin Pass rescue, was arrested in Closeburn. He later escaped from Dumfries jail. John Kennedy, of Closeburn, was drowned on the ill-fated ship, the Crown of London, wrecked at Deerness, Orkney, carrying 257 Covenanters; 209 were drowned. Thomas Milligan, of Closeburn, also drowned in the Crown of London shipwreck at Deerness. He was one of three brothers. Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick, a Covenanter sympathiser, was also of this parish. 219

58 Mill [78] NX Closeburn Mill ruins. Once home of James Nivison, Covenanter, who used to shelter Covenanters in his home. 1 James Nivison was a farmer whose hospitable home afforded comfort and shelter to many who were houseless. He was an unbending Covenanter. Nothing could daunt his noble soul. Being threatened with trouble and loss, he once replied, that if the turning of a straw, in obedience to unprincipled and arbitrary rulers, would save him from harm, he would not comply. His wife was of equal heroism. His home was so often beset by soldiers in search of him that he had to retire to the solitudes. He one day said to his wife, My dear wife, stern necessity demands our temporary separation. God will be with us both--you at the home, and me in the wilderness. I will accompany you, she firmly replied; I will accompany you. If the archers hit you, I will be there to staunch your wounds and to bind up your bleeding head. In whatever danger you may be, I will be at your side, your affectionate wife, in life or in death. They went out together. Sadly they closed the door of their pleasant home, to wander, not knowing where. The mother carried a tender little babe in her bosom. Their first retreat was found in the woods, then in different caves. They made a basket of twigs for the infant. The mother, sitting in the mouth of the cold cavern, would rock her little darling, and sing the soft lullabies that mingled with the sighing of the winds. They survived the persecution. 2 1 Simpson, Rev. R. pp 149, McFeeters, J. C. Sketches of the Covenanters. Project Gutenberg,

59 Old Churchyard (Parish Church) [78] NX The church is half a mile east of the village which is on the A76. A stone in front of the ruins of the old church to the left of the entrance commemorates Capt. John Mathieson of Closeburn, a close friend of Prophet Peden. 1 Closeburn old church and churchyard. HERE LYE THE CORPS OF I HN MATHIESON WHO WAS BA NISHED TO FOREIGN LANDS FOR ADHERING TO THE COVE NANTED WORK OF REFORMAT ION OF WHICH IOHN KILPAT RICK OF BRIDGE BURGHE AD HAD A CHIEF HAND. HERE TVRND FROM THENCE LIVED MANY YEA RS HE DYD IN 1670 AGED Gravestone of John Mathieson. Inscription on John Mathieson s grave. Capt. John Mathieson was a friend of Rev. Alexander Peden. He was deported to New Jersey for his belief in the Covenant principles in He returned, but was not even recognised by his family. He died 6 th December Nithsdale Covenanting Trail. Nithsdale Tourist Association. 2 There is added detail of his relatives. The date of his death differs according to different sources. 221

60 Closeburn Church. Churchyard of Closeburn Church. Peter Stranger, Covenanter, buried here. 1 Location Map 2 Covenanting Sites in Nithsdale, No Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, p 19 Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. pp Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. pp Orr, Brian, J. ROSEHILL - Places Index, Volume III, p 944 Simpson, Rev. R. pp *Simpson, Rev. R. pp , , 310, *Thomson, Rev. J. H. Martyr Graves. pp Grave looked for, but unlocated. 222

61 CLOSS Near Ochiltree, East Ayrshire [70] NS Farm The remains of Closs Farmstead - this was probably the home of Covenanter David Dun, who was shot and buried in Cumnock. Attribution: Raymond Okonski Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 191 *Wodrow, Rev. Robert. Volume IV. p 18 CLUTAG 1 Near Wigtown, Dumfries and Galloway [83] NX Farm Clutag Farm (North). William Sprot escaped from here and tried to sail for Ireland. He was taken and dragged back to Wigtown Tolbooth. Here they manacled him and fastened him to a rock. His ears were cut off and fingers burnt. He was put on a ship to be transported, but died on board. His wife miscarried whilst watching her husband suffer for the sake of the Gospel of Christ and the Covenant. 1 Clutag also spelt Clutoch. The Farm was once a combined property, but now is divided into North and South. 223

62 View from Clutag Farm (North). Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 227 COILSHOLM WOOD Near Failford, East Ayrshire [70] NS Wood PEDEN S COVE A new medium-distance pathway, the River Ayr Way, is being created in Ayrshire. The forty-mile walk passes a few sites associated with the Covenanters, including Airds Moss and William Adam s Grave. However, there is another less well-known spot passed en route, known as Peden s Cove. Traditionally Alexander Peden is supposed to have preached his last conventicle here, from a high rock reached from a rock-cut stairway, his congregation gathering on the opposite side of the River Ayr to listen. The site is rather amazing, and can be reached along the pathway from either Failford (which is closer) or Stair. 1 1 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 91, June 2006, p 9 224

63 Peden s Cove, where Rev. Alexander Peden is said to have preached his last conventicle. Image copyright: Bill Anderson and used with permission Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 167 COLMONELL Near Girvan, South Ayrshire [76] NX Churchyard (Parish Church) Colmonell Parish Church. 225

64 COVENANTERS OF COLMONELL Dane Love There is a well-known gravestone to a Covenanter buried in the old churchyard of Colmonell, in southern Ayrshire. This is Matthew McIlwraith, who is perhaps the original of Mucklewrath in Scott s novel, Old Mortality. However, there may be another martyr s grave there, for, whilst researching through old newspapers, I came across a short article that claims tradition states there were three Covenanters buried there. The article, in 1982, stated that there was an old stone by the side of the church door which bore the inscription: HERE/LYS THE DUST/OF ON YT WAS A STEA-/ED FRIEND TO JESUS CAUSE/AS OUR REFORMERS COVENATED/ IN LIFE NOR DEATH DID NOT REPENT. Does anyone know any more about this gravestone? Does it indeed still exist, and if so, to whom was it erected? I would be grateful for any information that any member may know. 1 Following the water of the Stinchar we reach the village of Colmonell. In the parish churchyard there is a stone with a story. This stone was erected in 1772 to mark the resting place of one James McCracken. Now McCracken had no part in the Covenanting struggle. So why is his gravestone mentioned? The stone is a double stone. That is to say, there is another name recorded on the other side - Matthew McIlwraith. McIlwraith was a Covenanter. McCracken s family wanted to bury him in the Covenanter s grave. They were allowed to do so on the understanding that the inscription on the old stone, badly worn, be repeated on the new one. It was. McIlwraith was the son of the farmer at Blair, near Barrhill. He was courting a Miss McEwan. They were talking of their marriage day. They were never to see it. The story runs that young Matthew was arrested at family worship. He escaped, but was wounded. Eventually he was cornered and killed in Dangart Glen. By bloody Claverhouse I fell says the inscription. His body lay all night. Locals were afraid to move it. Such kindness might be thought criminal. Next day, however, two young women came and, wrapping the body in a gray plaid, carried him to the churchyard. Years later a Janet Carson told of her part in the adventure. She never gave the name of her companion, but she did not need to. Colmonell knew that love had paid her last respects Extracts from The Story of Galloway by John F. Robertson, J. H. Maxwell Ltd. Castle Douglas. 226

65 COLMONELL COVENANTERS The recent selection of Covenanting poems has perhaps raised an interest with some of you. I was presented with a copy of a poem of the above title at the recent annual dinner, which is most impressive. Unfortunately, it is too long to include in the newsletter, for it would take up at least three pages. However, as well as Matthew McIlwraith, who is buried in the kirkyard, the poem makes reference to a number of other Colmonell Covenanters, most of whom were not readily known to myself. I quote a couple of verses to give the gist of what the poem is like: Pass now along towards the west, And; you will find the place where rest The bodies of the good MacGills, Who lived among the southern hills. At Arecleoch, John prayed and wrought; There Andrew, his dear son, was caught, At Ayr, a martyr, Andrew died, Because oppression he defied. In raids by Buchan, Douglas, Broich, Yet further suffered Arecleoch; His stock they stole, his house did loot, And John himself in prison put. Fergus, a son, though lying ill, They dragged outdoors, intent to kill; So weak he was, he could not stand, And so escaped the slayer s hand. John long outlived his troubles great; Saw better times in Kirk and State; Through many peaceful years survived, Til at lone Chirmorie he died. The poem has 47 verses in total, detailing many of the parish s family associations with the Covenanters. The poet was one James Sanderson, and the poem was apparently written in April It is surprising how much local knowledge of particular Covenanters there still exists out there, and even a simple poem written eighty years ago continues to record family tradition of the years of struggle. Where else would we have found out about the tale of Fergus MacGill, who survived the struggles by being too ill to stand when he was about to be executed at gunpoint? 1 OTHER COVENANTERS FROM COLMONELL PARISH John McLellan, Thomas McClurg and John McCornock perished in the Crown of London shipwreck at Deerness. Rev. Anthony Shaw was outed from his parish of Colmonell because of his covenanting beliefs. 1 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 100, June 2009, p

66 I Matthew M Il wraith in Parifh of Colmonell, By Bloody Claverhoufe I fell; Who did Command that I fhould die. For owning Covenanted prefbytr y; My Blood a Witnets ftill doth ftand, Gainft all detecti ons in this Land Cloud of Witneis These are they which came out of great tribulation and have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb REV VII: 1-4 Matthew McIlwraith s grave in Colmonell churchyard. Campbell, T. p 61 Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. pp Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 60 Orr, Brian, J. *Thomson, Rev. J. H. A Cloud of Witnesses. p 593 *Thomson, Rev. J. H. The Martyr Graves. pp 320, 322,

67 COLVEND Near Dalbeattie, Dumfries and Galloway [84] NX Village Colvend Village. Colvend was the home of Covenanter minister, Alexander Smith Alexander Smith, A. M., was translated from Garrell and Dungree. He was called in November, and admonished 25 th December. He was deprived by the Acts of Parliament the 11 th June, and of the Privy Council 1 st October, He was cited before the Privy Council, 24 th March, 1663, with others, when they promised to obey the Acts of Parliament and Council, to remove from their manses and parishes, and desist from preaching. Having taken up his abode at Leith, he was again called before the Privy Council in July, 1664, for keeping conventicles (this was only preaching in a private house). Being considered disrespectful to Archbishop Sharp, one of their number, however, he was ordered to be led by the town s hangman to the thieves hole, and to be confined by irons on his feet and legs, where he continued three days, until the kindness of the citizens made the bishops ashamed,. He was next removed to another room, where he fell sick, and was in danger of his life. In answering some questions put to him by Sharp, he did not give him his episcopal title, but called him simply Sir. Rothes interrupted him Do you know to whom you are speaking? Yes, my Lord, replied the intrepid minister, I speak to James Sharp, once a fellow minister with myself. This was a high crime, and without any further inquiry into conventicles, he was banished by the Court of High Commission to an uninhabited island in Shetland, where barley was his only food, and wreck and sea-weed his only fuel. He was brought from thence in 1668, committed to the Tolbooth of Edinburgh, and after fourteen days confinement, was transferred to Orkney, and detained in the island of North Ronaldsay. He returned to Edinburgh, however, and died at the Castlehill, 21 st February, 1673, in the 26 th year of his ministry. He married, in February 1646, Helen Neval, of Dumfries. 1 *Howie, John. Volume I. pp Orr, Brian, J. 1 Colvend and Southwick handbook 229

68 CONRICK Near Crawick, Dumfries and Galloway [71/78] NS House Conrick House - William Crichton was shot near here and a gravestone marked the site of his burial for many years. Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 190 CORDORCAN 1 Near Newton Stewart, Dumfries and Galloway [76/77/82] NX Farm Cordorcan and environs - the homes of Archibald Douglas, John McCoyd, Robert Stewart and James Wilson were once situated here. All four men signed the Minnigaff Covenant. Images copyright: Peter Dalrymple and used with permission 1 Cordorcan used to be called Lagbaes. 230

69 *Morton, A. S. pp 472, 475 CORFARDINE (See SCAR VALLEY) CORNLEE Near Dunscore, Dumfries and Galloway [78/84] NX Farm Cornlee - home during Covenanting times of another John Welsh, who was present at the Battle of Bothwell Bridge *Morton, A. S. pp 123, 125, 144, 175, 188, 273 *Wodrow, Rev. Robert. Volume II. pp 66, 92, 113, 186, 251. Volume III. pp 180, 248. Volume IV. pp 235,

70 CORRA CASTLE Near New Lanark, South Lanarkshire [71/72] NS Castle (ruins) Corra Castle, a 15 th century fortified farmhouse built by the Bannatyne family and once home to Covenanter and minister of Lanark, John Bannatyne. Attribution: (left) Gordon Brown; (right): Mr Slippery Corra Castle Corra Castle is a fortified farmhouse and was built in the 15 th century by the Bannatyne family. It is now owned by the Corehouse estate. The castle has an ideal defensive position with 3 sides sitting on almost vertical cliffs. The main building extends along the West Side of the island promontory. Information on notice board. - on the ground floor four vaulted cellars (3 still intact) would have been used for storage - upper floors consisted of formal hall for entertaining and family rooms, however only the floor and structural walls remain. - under the castle there was a corn-mill driven by the water at the top of the 84 ft waterfall. index.php?service=rcahms&id=46597 The castle is an important roost for protected Daubenton bats. For this reason, access to the castle is strictly prohibited. 232

71 CORSEGELLIOCH 1 Near New Cumnock, East Ayrshire [70] NS Forest About one and a half miles north of Dalgig Farm near New Cumnock can be found a monument commemorating three covenanters: John Humphrey; Joseph Wilson; John Jamieson. The monument, which is 12 foot high and enclosed within walls and railings, is on rough moorland climbing to a height of about 1200 feet. The three Covenanters were returning from a conventicle in 1685, having listened to preacher James Renwick, when they were shot as they approached Carsegailoch/Carsegellioch. A fourth covenanter, Alexander Jamieson, was captured and taken to Dalmellington but later escaped. Around 1827 when work was being undertaken to the foundations of the monument at the site, workmen uncovered three bodies, still clothed in a good state of preservation, owing to the antiseptic properties of the peat bog in which they were buried. Generations of the family who lived at Dalgig Farm still possess a lock of yellow hair taken from one of the men and a fragment of a woollen mitten taken from one of the other bodies. These treasured relics, sad reminders of the Killing Times were recently loaned to the Baird Institute Museum in Cumnock where they were displayed adjacent to the covenanting banner and proved to be a fascinating exhibit for visitors. 2 Covenanters grave, Corsegellioch Hill, Near Dalgig Farm, New Cumnock. 3 1 Corsegellioch - there are various spellings of its name. 2 Covenanters Chronicle. Ardrossan: Guthrie Newspaper Group, January This is near New Cumnock, off Dalmellington Road, and very difficult to find. At some point in its history, the top has been put on upside down. 233


73 CORSEGELLIOCH RELICS I keep reverting to the Corsegellioch martyrs not just because I can see Corsegellioch Hill from my window, but also because of the story of the bodies of the three martyrs being unearthed, perfectly preserved in the peaty soil, some 142 years after their deaths. Some months ago a descendant of one of the men who actually unearthed the bodies presented to me, on indefinite loan, two artefacts taken from the martyrs grave. They are a lock of hair and a piece of woollen mitten taken from the body of John Humphrey, and they are contained in a little case. I have produced these artefacts at various meetings and talks, and I have been interested to note that some people are not at all keen to view them, while others are very eager to see them. The owner of these articles has also loaned me a Holy Bible (illustrated) which was printed in 1680! 1 ERECTED After a sermon preached here in 1826 by the Rev d A. M. ROGE RSON, Darvel from Rev. 7:14 These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. REPAIRED After a sermon preached by the Rev d DR. McALLISTER of Pittsburgh, USA. 28 th June, Reverse of Covenanters grave. Inscription on reverse of Covenanters grave. 1 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No.52, June 1993, p 1 235

74 CORSEGELLIOCH The martyrs grave on the top of a hill in New Cumnock Parish has been receiving attention from the vandals, - nothing serious, - just a lot of idiots wanting to scrawl initials and messages on a memorial. In order to prevent this, the indefatigable George Fisher and I did a yomp of materials and tools from Dalgig farm to the site. We replaced a missing rail, inserted a keeper bar, and clipped on a padlock. It sounds very simple, but it required a great deal of thought and measuring, and hard graft. Our task would have been much harder had we not been granted the use of a batteryoperated drill, so that we could prepare the railings to take the new rail. This drill was freely loaned to us by a sympathiser. The owner, whose name I am withholding in case he gets further requests to lend it out (!), had just bought it at a great price, - and had never used it! But he was glad to lend it to me, because he appreciated the work we in the Association do. We certainly appreciated his kindness and his confidence that we would look after such a valuable tool. We have now secured the grave area here, and it will be a foolhardy vandal, who will try to climb over the spiked railings. On our return journey from this site we put up another signboard Martyrs Grave where visitors will leave the road and enter the forest. It s rough going through the forest ride for about 400 yards. 1 CORSEGELLIOCH RE-VISITED George Scott This memorial is rarely visited nowadays. Yet, in the past, thousands of people have climbed the hill to attend conventicles. Three unfortunate Covenanters were executed here in 1685 and, at a later date, Old Mortality erected a stone over their grave. Later still, in 1827, a huge monolith of a memorial was erected on the spot, and during the digging for the foundation for this stone, the bodies of the Covenanters were unearthed - perfectly preserved! The explanation for this phenomenon is that they had been interred in peat, which is said to have antiseptic properties. The present gravestone records that it was erected following a sermon, preached there in 1826 by Rev. A.M. Rogerson of Darvel. Seventy years later, a further large conventicle was addressed by Rev. Dr. McAllister of Pittsburgh, United States. In living memory, there have been several more. Yet, this has not been an easy place to approach. Even today, with a convenient forestry road reaching within half a mile, it takes 40 minutes of steady uphill walking to reach our destination. Any members wishing to visit this memorial should leave their cars at Dalgig Farm, about 5 miles south-west of Cumnock. (It s good policy and good manners to ask at the farm for permission to use their road.) Take the uphill road through the gate which is seen just before arriving at Dalgig (pronounced Daljig), and stick to that road through several gates until a large observation tower is reached. Take the road to the left here. In half a mile, as the road begins to deteriorate, a small sign, Martyrs Grave is seen on a bank above you on the right. This leads to a narrow and rough track through the forest, with tussocky grass, ditches, and plank-bridges to negotiate. Within 15 minutes you should arrive in a clearing with the memorial at its centre, and here you can rest and contemplate the faith and death of these three martyrs: Joseph Wilson, John Jamieson, and John Humphrey. Their crime had been attendance at a field preaching by the Rev. James Renwick. Some years ago I secured the gate in the monument s railings with a padlock bound in pvc and grease. On my return in April 2002, I was delighted to note that the padlock is in pristine condition. Once again it has been encased in grease, and it will assuredly keep out any potential vandal or graffiti artist. 2 1 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No.52, June 1993 p 5 2 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No.79, June 2002, p 8 236

75 CORSEGELLIOCH George Scott reported in the last newsletter that access to this memorial is particularly hard. He has been back, and reports that access is still extremely difficult, nay dangerous. This is particularly so in the first yards where his crook could sink into at least a foot of squelchy peat, even after the dry spell which we have enjoyed. In an attempt to avoid the quagmire on his return home George opted to make his way out by the north ride. This was not a good move! He had to struggle for about three miles through chest-high grasses and rushes, and he found it to be quite dangerous, falling several times into concealed open drains. 1 Barr, J. p 157 Campbell, T. pp Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. pp Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 56 MARTYRS MOSS - Places Index, Volume III, p 783 Order of Service for Tercentenary Conventicles Orr, Brian, J. Simpson, Rev. R. pp *Simpson, Rev. R. pp *Thomson, Rev. J. H. Martyr Graves. pp *Todd, Adam Brown. pp CORSOCK CASTLE Near Corsock, Dumfries and Galloway [84] NX House The south side of Corsock House - this stands in the grounds of the old Corsock Castle, the home of Covenanter, John (Robert) Neilson of Corsock, Confessor of the Covenant and his wife, Lady Mary McLellan. Andrew Haining, a servant to the household, was arrested for failing to give a bond to keep the peace. Postcard provided by Jane Ingall, present owner of Corsock House 1 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No.89, September 2005, p 7 237

76 Sketch of the well-preserved stone shield (marriage plaque) bearing the Neilson arms which was incorporated into the east wall of the modern house The plaque is all that remains of the old building. 1 Sketch by 9 year old son of present owners of Corsock House and used with kind permission The marriage plaque, carefully incorporated into the Victorian additions to Corsock House no doubt from the old Corsock Castle is inscribed: IN 1589 MG with two coats of arms. I of course being the old way of writing a capital J. It may have been his son, another John who was the Covenanter hung in 1666 as an old man and whose widow is buried at Kirkpatrick Durham kirkyard. 2 The old Corsock Castle or House was probably a simple Scottish Keep built down the hill from us nearer the River Urr, but now no longer. There are a few stones in one of our fields which purport to have been the place but most of the stones have been used in walls and houses round about, not least the new Corsock House up the hill. This field is on our farm called Hall Croft. The present house was, we think, a farm house made into a Georgian House in the early 19 th century and then in 1853 substantially added to by the Scottish baronial architect David Bryce. On these Victorian additions was incorporated the marriage plaque you mention. It is rather high up on the east wall and not easy to see the detail from the ground. The rough sketch of it was done from the top of a tall ladder by our son when he was 9 years old - I hope it gives you some idea of it! 3 As soon as Gabriel Semple, minister of Kirkpatrick Durham, was driven from his church he was given hospitality by Neilson, laird of Corsock. Semple conducted services in Corsock House until his audiences became too large, then in the garden, and finally in the open fields. This was the first field meeting or conventicle to be held and it set an example which was soon to be followed by other Covenanters all over the country. Realising that their lives were now forfeit anyway, McClelland and his companions resolved at least to go down fighting and to do as much damage as they could in the process. They quickly recruited a small body of local Covenanters and the next day captured a detachment of a dozen soldiers stationed in Balmaclellan. They were fortunate in making contact with that grand old Covenanter John Neilson of Corsock, in whose house the first conventicle had been held. Since then, Neilson 1 The initials IN (JN) and MG stand for John Neilson and Mary Gordon, parents of the famous Covenanter, John Neilson. 2 Notes on the plaque sent by the present owner of Corsock House. 3 Extract from a letter sent from the present owner of Corsock House. 238

77 had lost his whole estate by way of fines to Turner s troops, his tenants had also been ruined and driven from their homes, and he himself had for long been hiding on the moors between Corsock and Balmaclellan. All members of this first tiny covenant armed force were greatly encouraged to have the active support of this highly respected figure. The following day they reached Dumfries, where they made a daring raid on the lodging occupied by Sir James Turner and were delighted to find him at home. Some of the Covenanters wanted to kill Turner at once, but Neilson restrained them. Instead they made their way to the town cross so that Neilson could explain the purpose of their rising: that it was a justifiable protest against the persecution of the Covenanters by Turner s soldiers, and in no way treasonable. To prove this they drank the king s health and, after reaffirming their allegiance to the Covenant, they marched off back to Dalry, taking Sir James Turner as a prisoner with them. Eleven of the Covenanter prisoners from Rullion Green were put on trial immediately and were hanged in Edinburgh on 7 th December... John Neilson was in the next batch of prisoners to be sentenced to death. Before he was hanged, however, the authorities submitted him to torture with the boot in an attempt to obtain from him details of the Covenanters plans for future rebellions; but, since there were no such plans, there was nothing for Neilson to reveal. Sir James Turner, to his great credit, then made every effort to have the elderly Covenanter reprieved, and he might well have succeeded, but Dalgleish, the episcopal curate of Kirkpatrick Durham, intervened and gave evidence that Nelson was the ringleader of the rebels, and so he was hanged. 1 CORSOCK HOUSE AND GARDENS The lands of Corsock, lying beside the River Urr, belonged to the Neilson family from the 12 th to 18 th century. The best known member of this family was that much respected Covenanter John Neilson. He was the first Laird to join the Covenanters and it was at Corsock under his hospitality that the first field-meeting, or conventicle, took place. Finally as an old man he was hung in Edinburgh in December 1666 for his part in the Pentland Rising. The house has, on the east side, a marriage plaque carefully incorporated into the Victorian additions. It bears the date 1589, with the initials and Arms of John Neilson and his wife - probably the Covenanter s parents. The earliest visible part of the present house is late Georgian and built a century after what became known as the Killing Times. 2 1 Extracts from The Story of Galloway by John F. Robertson, J. H. Maxwell Ltd. Castle Douglas. 2 Extract from leaflet about Corsock House provided by the current owners of Corsock House. 239

78 Plan of Corsock Estate showing a suggested walking route round the grounds. 1 1 From leaflet about Corsock House provided by the current owners of Corsock House. I am indebted to Mrs. Jane Ingall for the wealth of information she supplied freely, upon request, for this project. 240

79 OTHER COVENANTERS FROM CORSOCK John Wilson, of Corsock, was fined 600 in Robert Neilson, eldest son of John Neilson, fled to Ireland. Harper, Malcolm McLachlan. Rambles in Galloway. Edinburgh: Edmonston & Douglas, pp 162, 226 *Howie, John. Volume I. pp KIRKPATRICK DURHAM - Places Index, Volume III, pp Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 62 Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 62 McKerlie, P. H. History of the Lands and their Owners in Galloway. Edinburgh: William Paterson, pp Orr, Brian, J. COULTER Near Biggar, South Lanarkshire [72] NT Churchyard Coulter Church and churchyard. Attribution: Richard Webb In Covenanting Footsteps A Car Tour of Covenanter Sites in the Clyde Valley. Lanark: Clyde Valley Tourist Board. Location Map 5 Covenanting Sites in Clyde Valley - Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, p 22 MURRAY, Rev. Anthony - People Index, Volume II, p

80 COUSTON CASTLE Near Dalgety Bay, Fife [65/66] NT Castle Rev. Robert Blair died here and is buried at Aberdour in St. Fillans Churchyard COVENANTERS WELL Near Lauder, Scottish Borders [73] NT Field Covenanters Well, Lauder Moor. The well is in the field beyond the wall. Whilst it is now dry, water from the spring collects (turning muddy) on farm track. BLUECAIRN - Places Index, Volume III, p 136 Horne, S. & Hardie, J. B. pp Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 27 Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 63 php?service=rcahms&id=


82 COVINGTON MILL This monument, near Thankerton, Lanarkshire, marking the capture there of the Rev. Donald Cargill, has now been beautified, thanks to the work of David Roy, John Reardon and their willing band of volunteers. Cobbles, surrounded by kerbing have been laid, thus inhibiting the growth of grass and weeds, and the fence has been repaired. Pointing of the masonry and painting of lettering has completed a very long, but worthwhile job. Many thanks, gentlemen. 1 BLAIRGOWRIE - Places Index, Volume III, pp BONSHAW TOWER - Places Index, Volume III, p 142 In Covenanting Footsteps A Car Tour of Covenanter Sites in the Clyde Valley. Lanark: Clyde Valley Tourist Board. IRVING, James - People Index, Volume II, p 163 Location Map 5 Covenanting Sites in Clyde Valley - Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, p 22 Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 132 Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 63 RATTRAY - Places Index, Volume III, pp *Sime, William. Volume II. pp Simpson, Rev. R. pp *Simpson, Rev. R. pp COWCORSE Near Mainsriddle, Dumfries and Galloway [84] NX Farm Cowcorse - home during Covenanting times of Covenanter, John Sturgeon. *Morton, A. S. p Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 56, September 1994, p 3 244

83 THE CRAGS Forest of Ae, Dumfries and Galloway [78] NX Cave The Crags, Ae Forest - the burn and the clevity which leads to the cave where the Covenanters hid. Close-up of cave. The Linn and waterfall above the cave. 245

84 William Swan who lived in Dalswinton used to take food to the Covenanters, letting it down the crags by means of a basket on a rope. Swan was devoted to the cause of the Covenant. The Forest of AE. AE: AE Forest District, no year given. Location Map 6 AE Forest - Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, p 23 Simpson, Rev. R. pp 177, *Simpson, Rev. R. pp Waterfall near entrance to cave. CRAIGDARROCH Near Moniaive, Dumfries and Galloway [77] NX House Craigdarroch House. Used as a refuge for Covenanters. John Ferguson, who lived here, was killed at the Battle of Killiecrankie in Grounds and environs of Craigdarroch. Simpson, Rev. R. pp *Simpson, Rev. R. pp 24-25, service=rcahms&id=

85 CRAIGDOW HILL Near Maybole, South Ayrshire [70/76] NS Moors and Farm Craigdow Hill, approximately four miles south of Maybole, where a large communion conventicle was held in August Near to 71,000 are said to have taken part. Among those ministers officiating were Revs. John Welsh, Richard Cameron, Archibald Riddell, Patrick Warner and John Kidd. Craigdow Farm, where conventicle ministers were given hospitality. The Covenanters, Leaflet No. 84 Dumfries Museum Gray, James, T. Maybole, Carrick's Capital Facts, Fiction & Folks. Ayr: Alloway Publishing, Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 27 Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 63 MARSCALLOCH MOSS - Places Index, Volume III, pp

86 CRAIGENCALLIE Near New Galloway, Dumfries and Galloway [77] NX Ruin An outbuilding at the Craigencallie outdoor centre. Covenanter John Gordon once lived in a farm here. He signed the Minnigaff Covenant. Attribution: Colin Kinnear *Morton, A. S. p 472 CRAIGENGILLAN Near Dalmellington, East Ayrshire [77] NS House Part of Craigengillan Estate - once home to the McAdam family. Gilbert McAdam was a Covenanter fugitive. Attribution: Ann Cook Orr, Brian, J. 248

87 CRAIGHAUGH Near Eskdalemuir, near Lockerbie, Dumfries and Galloway [79] NY Field Tomb of Covenanter Andrew Hyslop, in field at Craighaugh. 249

88 Here l yes Andrew Hislop Martyr shot dead upon This place by Sir James Johnston of West erhall And John Graham of C laverhouse for adheri - ng to the word of God Christ s kingly govern - ment in his House and the covenanted work of Reformation against tyran ny, perjury and placy May Rev Halt passenger, one word wi - th thee or two wh y I l ye here wouldst thou truly know by wi cked han - ds, hands cruel and unjust without all law my life from me they thrust & being dead they left me on this s pot, & for burial this same place I got. tr - uths friends in Eskdale now triumph their lot, to wit the faith - ful for my seal that 1702 got Andrew Hyslop s grave. Inscription on Andrew Hyslop s grave. Area surrounding grave of Andrew Hyslop. 250

89 Andrew Hislop John Veitch, L.L.D. [A sick covenanter sought shelter in the house of a widow and died there. She and her sons buried the man secretly. However, the Laird of Westerhall heard of this and, for her kindness, he had her house destroyed. One of her sons, Andrew, a lad of about 17 was caught. Westerhall was eager to shoot him and ordered him to cover his eyes. I can look you in the face, he said, I have done nothing of which I d need be ashamed. But how will you look in that day when you shall be judged by what is written in the book? He was shot where he knelt, his Bible in his hand, and was buried on the spot] Andrew Hislop! Shepherd lad, Martyr Graven on your tomb; here you met the brutal Clavers, here you bore his murderous doom! Coming from the hill that morn, doing humble duty well; free in step, your honest look, born of sunlight in the fell. Here the Eskdale Mountains round you, in your ear and murmuring stream; here, tis May, the bleating lambs life but seems a peaceful dream. With no weapon but the crook your soft, helpless, flock to guide; here they shot you, Shepherd lad, here you poured your warm heart tide! Ere I pass into the Presesence, May I make a prayer to God? Not one word, said the brutal Clavers, We ve no time, you wretched clod! Draw your bonnet o er your eyes, that is boon enough for thee. I pass to God with open face, whom you will hardly dare to see! WesterHall and Claverhouse, turn now since the deed is done! What care ye for rebel corpse? Let it bleach beneath the sun! So they left you, martyr brave, left you on the reddened sod; but no raven-touched your face; On it lay the peace of God! On the more the widow mother bows to lot of jule and pine; and WesterHall and Claverhouse have merrily rode back to dine 251

90 Barr, J. pp Campbell, T. pp Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. pp MID-WINDSHIELS - Places Index, Volume III, pp Orr, Brian, J. *Thomson, Rev. J. H. A Cloud of Witnesses. pp *Thomson, Rev. J. H. The Martyr Graves. pp CRAIGIE HILL Near Kilmarnock, South Ayrshire [70] NS Hill View of Kilmarnock from Craigie Hill. Conventicles were held in this area by Rev. Alexander Peden and Rev. Robert Archibald of Dunscore. Peden s Cave, situated on Craigie Hill, is associated with the Rev. Alexander Peden. Image copyright: H. P. Gray and used with permission Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. pp 63,

91 CRAIGMODDIE Near Newton Stewart, Dumfries and Galloway [76] NX Moors 1 1 Starling, Peter, D. 253

92 The tomb of Alexander Linn, Covenanter, Craigmoddie, Galloway hills. Memento mori Here lies the body of Al ex Linn who was surprised and instantly shot to death on this place by Lieu General Drummond for his adherence to Scotland s Reformation covenants national and solemn league 1685 A COMMEMORATION SE RVICE WAS HE LD HERE ON THE 31 ST JULY 1927 AND THEREAFTER T HIS MEMORIAL WAS RESTORED One of three tableaux on Alexander Linn s tomb. Inscription on first tableau. 254

93 RENEWED IN CONSEQUENCE OF A SERMON PREACHED HE RE BY THE REV D A.F. MITCHELL MINISTER OF KIRKCOWAN, ON THE 14 TH AUGUST, Text 144 th Psalm, 15th Verse. Happy is that people, whose GOD is the LORD. This Tomb was Rebuilt after a Service Here in It was Rededi cated on the 28 th May 1912 By the Rev D R. L. Johnstone Kirkcowan. Inscription on second tableau. Second tableau on tomb. Third tableau on tomb. Memento Mori Here lies the body of Alex Linn who was surprised and instantly sh ot to death on this place by Li eu General Drummond for his adherence to Scotland s reformation Covenants national & sol emn league 1685 Renewed in 1827 in consequence of a sermon preached on this spot by the Revd. Wm. Symington of Stranraer. contend for th e faith &c. Inscription on third tableau. 255

94 LINN S TOMB Prompted by Mr. William Paterson, Session Clerk, Kirkcowan Parish Church, I visited this grave to see the state of the surrounding masonry. Mr. Paterson had noticed at the recent conventicle that one of the large coping stones was coming loose, and other pointing was required. I found this to be the case and took photos of the work required. We will require a mason or bricklayer to do this work. A slight snag is getting the materials up to the site on Craigmoddie Fell, but I have an assurance by the shepherd that he can convey it there on his 4-wheel bike. 1 LINN S TOMB, CRAIGMODDIE MOOR This memorial in an out-of-the-way spot in deepest Galloway has been requiring attention for some time. Parts of the masonry wall around the grave were giving cause for concern. I wondered how this was to be achieved, in view of the distance involved and the transportation of heavy materials over the high moor to the site. I should not have worried. An appeal to Mr. William C. Paterson, Session Clerk at Kirkcowan resulted in an almost instantaneous response. He, and three very willing volunteers, all retired tradesmen from Kirkcowan, George Young, Sam McWhirter, and James Maxwell undertook, to do the job. On arrival at The Derry Farm, they acquired the services of another volunteer, the farmer, Alex McKnight, who transported all their tools and materials up the hill on his 4-wheeled bike. The access road through the forestry was closed due to harvesting operations, but they were kindly allowed to pass through, viewing on their way a harvesting machine which cost 110,000! The memorial having been reached, the band of workers set to and over the next few hours replaced and mortared-in a large, granite coping stone. The masonry joints of the wall were scraped out and re-pointed. The rose bushes within the enclosure were pruned, and the job was completed by a general tidying-up of the site. I am sure that all these gentlemen would derive a great deal of satisfaction from their work on this historic site, and we owe them a sincere thank you for their sterling efforts. Incidentally, they would not charge a penny for their time, travelling expenses or materials. Historical note: - Alexander Lynn (or Lin, or Linn) who lies buried at this site, was a shepherd from New Luce, who may well have been a parishioner of Rev. Alexander Peden some years before. His presence on the lonely moors is said to have been betrayed by lapwings sweeping down on him. They were seen by Lt. Gen. Drummond s dragoons, who soon caught up with Lynn and instantly shot him. 2 CONVENTICLE AT LINN S TOMB This well-attended event took place on Sunday, 21 st June, on a bright, breezy day. The memorial site is in a very isolated spot, in the Knowe area, -off the back-road between Newton Stewart and Barrhill. To reach the site from a convenient forestry road a little hill-walking is required, but the local farmers supplied a tractor and trailer, on which the young, the elderly, the disabled or the unfit were transported uphill. The service was conducted by Rev. Alex Cairns, Kirkcolm, and the challenging and inspiring sermon was delivered by Rev. Mark Malcolm, Kirkcowan, within whose parish the martyrdom took place in1685. A collection was taken during the service, and this was handed over to me for the renovation of Covenanter memorials. It amounted to , - truly a magnificent donation. 3 1 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 56, September 1994, p 3 2 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 60, February 1996, p 9 3 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 68, September, 1998, p

95 ALEXANDER LINN OF DERRY FARM Loretta Lynn Layman and used with permission It was the spring of A shepherd from Derry Farm tended his flock on the moor on Craigmoddie Fell. While the sheep grazed quietly about him, he sat near the crest of the hill and read his pocket Bible. Lieutenant-General William Drummond, whose brutal, relentless pursuit of Covenanters had earned him the nickname Herod Drummond, was leading his men across southern Ayrshire. As they advanced toward Wigtownshire, a number of lapwings flying in the distance suggested that some danger threatened their nests. Suspecting the cause of their distress might be human, Drummond led his men across the border. Approaching Craigmoddie Fell, they saw someone near the top of the hill and circled around to take him by surprise. When they found him in possession of a pocket Bible, Drummond decided that was cause enough to condemn the man. And so, Alexander Linn, a simple shepherd, was ambushed, shot, and killed for his faith. Later, when Linn s lifeless body was found, it was buried where he had died. The place, described by Rev. William Mackenzie as a bleak, romantic spot, was marked by a memorial stone. One hundred and forty-two years later, Rev. William Symington of Stranraer conducted a memorial service at the grave of Alexander Linn. A stone wall was built around the grave, its stone placed in the wall, and a new stone added. The new stone repeats the inscription from the old (correcting the spelling of the name Drummond) and included a post script: Memento Mon. Here lies the Body of Alex Linn, who was surprised and instantly shot to death on this place, by Lieut. General Drummond for his adherence to Scotland s Reformation, covenants national Solemn league Renewed in 1827 in consequence of a sermon preached on this Spot by the Rev d W. Symington of Stranraer. Contend for the faith & c. The grave is in so remote and wild a place that Mackenzie also wrote: It was [a] matter of surprise, that a congregation could be collected there to hear [a] sermon... Yet, says an eye witness, we had a large and most attentive audience, people having gathered from a wide circle of the surrounding country. It was with great difficulty that Dr. Symington could find his way to the spot on the Sabbath morn; but as he approached it, he perceived people streaming towards it from all quarters. A temporary pulpit was erected near the martyr s grave. The audience listened with much pleasure, to a long and moving discourse, from Jude 3. An old elder from Ayrshire, officiated as precentor and gave plaintive martyrs worthy of the name... Sixty years after Symington s sermon, another memorial service was conducted at Linn s tomb; in twenty-four and twenty-five years more, yet another and another. Eventually, a second new stone was added to the stone wall, commemorating the 1887, 1911 and 1912 services. 257

96 RENEWED IN CONSEQUENCE OF A SERMON PREACHED HERE BY THE REVD A.F. MITCHELL, MINISTER OF KIRKCOWAN, ON THE 14 TH AUGUST Text 144 TH Psalm, 15 th Verse. Happy is that people whose GOD is the LORD. This Tomb was Rebuilt after a Service Here in 1911 Was Rededicated on the 28 th May 1912 By the Rev d R.L. Johnstone Kirkcowan. In another fifteen years, then, there was yet more commemoration at the tomb. A 1927 service was noted by an addendum to Alexander Linn s original 1685 stone, on which Drummond s name had been written Drumand. A COMMEMORATION SERVICE WAS HELD HERE ON THE 31 ST JULY 1927 AND THEREAFTER THIS MEMORIAL WAS RESTORED. On that spring day in 1685, what words of God were last on the heart and mind of Alexander Linn as he read the scriptures? What promises of the Lord ushered him into his heavenly home as he left his earthly abode? Inside his tomb s enclosure, a rose is growing. On the hills around, sheep still graze. 1 CALDONS - Places Index, Volume III, pp Campbell, T. pp Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 172 Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. pp Orr, Brian, J Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 91, June 2006, pp

97 CRAIGNELL Near Clatteringshaws, Dumfries and Galloway [77] NX House Craignell - home during Covenanting times of John, Patrick and Quintin McMillan who signed the Minnigaff Covenant. Attribution: Oliver Dixon Orr, Brian, J. CRAIGNETHAN CASTLE Near Crossford, South Lanarkshire [72] NS Castle Craignethan Castle, Home of Covenanter, Rev. Andrew Hay. Images copyright: James Brown and used with permission Plaque on Andrew Hay s house. 259

98 CRAIGNORTH HILL Near Kirkconnel, Dumfries and Galloway [71/78] NS and NS Hill and Gullies Brown s Cleuch and Morris Cleuch - these gullies were used as hiding places by William Brown and Robert Morris when they were being pursued by Royalist soldiers. The Covenanters were found cowering in the gullies and shot. Two men Brown and Morris, were shot on a hill that overlooks the Water of Crawick. 1 Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p Simpson, Rev. R. Martyrland. p

99 CRAWFORD Near Symington and Biggar, South Lanarkshire [72] NS Old Graveyard, Kirkton The very damp, old and unkempt graveyard at Kirkton, Crawford. Covenanter, John Willison of Glenguth s grave. 1 John Willison sheltered many ministers at his home. DOUGLAS - Places Index, Volume III, pp ELVANFOOT - Places Index, Volume III, pp Horne, S. & Hardie, J. B. p 36 Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 97 Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 64 Simpson, Rev. R. p 122. *Simpson, Rev. R. pp CRAWICK (Hyslop, See SANQUHAR) 1 This is not definitely Willison s grave. It is the most likely one. We spent an hour here hunting around for it. 261

100 CRAWICK WATER Near Sanquhar, Dumfries and Galloway [71/78] NS River Water of Crawick - a number of Covenanters, including William Crichton, Robert Laidlaw, Robert Morris and a woman, were shot on the vast area of moors between Muirkirk and Sanquhar. Attribution: Jonathan Billinger BLACKGANNOCH - Places Index, Volume III, pp Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 189 Simpson, Rev. R. pp 10, 16, 34-35, 134, *Simpson, Rev. R. pp , CRICHOPE LINN Near Closeburn, Dumfries and Galloway [78] NX River This fascinating and romantic little wooded gorge is found less than 2 miles from Closeburn. Strike off the A76 and follow the unclassified road parallel to the railway and then the Cample Burn. This lovely spot is entered on the right opposite an old quarry. For obvious reasons it was regularly used as a hiding place by the Covenanters, featuring in Scott s Old Mortality. 1 1 Nithsdale Covenanting Trail. Nithsdale Tourist Association. 262

101 Cover and caves at Crichope Linn, where Covenanters hid. The deep gorge of Crichope Linn near Thornhill. From the hillside above, the narrow crevice is almost undetectable. Image copyright and description: Tom Weir 263

102 A CANYON AND KIRKCUDBRIGHT Tom Weir There are places I ve had a mind to go to for years, and one of them was Crichope Linn due east of Thornhill in Dumfriesshire. It lies close to one of the loveliest stretches of the Nith valley, and in all the years I ve been writing for The Scots Magazine, I ve seen only one short article on it and that was away back in the March 1960 issue. Driving south through Thornhill with my wife and her hill-walking friend Sadie, both of them with the appropriate clothing, it occurred to me that this would be the time to go. I told them what I could remember of the article, and how the writer described lying down to peer over an edge dropping a sheer 30 feet into a slit from which he heard the sound of roaring waters. The sides of the ravine were so close together that the walker upon the open hillside would hardly suspect the gentle slopes were cut by such a savage fissure. The writer had been determined to explore the gorge, but it was not till eight years later that he returned, after a hot, dry spell, to enter Crichope Linn at river level with swimming trunks and a long stick. He quoted a description of the Linn by Sir Walter Scott, whose brother was at nearby Closeburn School. It is at once fearful and beautiful. The stream jumps down from moorlands, saws its way into the freestone rock of one hundred feet deep, and in escaping to the plain performs a thousand vagaries. One part of it he describes as being shaped like a chapel. Local people called it the Sutor s Chair, a sutor being a shoemaker. In his account in this magazine, the writer of 26 years ago told how he stepped through the narrow entrance and followed the twists and turns of the stream bed until he came under a huge overhang above a deep pool. He swam across and ascended the waterfall at the far end. He was now in a huge circular chamber, a whirlpool when the water was high, known as Hell s Cauldron. Swimming on and turning many corners he came to the narrowest point of the Linn, whose walls above were only three feet apart. He was swimming in the dark now and making his way between walls only two feet apart. Gradually the chasm broadened again, but there was still no view of the sky as he felt along the stream bed, prodding with his stick. When he thought all was well and that he was through, he saw, 80 feet above him, a cascade pouring from a crag. He worked his way up its side to emerge on the open hillside. Standing there he was amazed to see that there was absolutely no sign of the awesome, roaring Crichope Linn. From Thornhill s wide street and grassy pavements with pollarded lime trees it is such a short trip through gentle country that you can hardly believe anything as fearsome as Crichope Linn exists in the neighbourhood. Half a mile south of the village we swung east on a minor road for the Cample Water, passing north after a railway bridge; about a mile on, we stopped at a big sandstone quarry. A wicket gate led to a well-made path along the burnside, the work of local volunteers, I learned later. Quite suddenly we were in a different world as the walls closed round us in banks of primroses and violets. Below, a water ouzel went scurrying away, and from above came bird song from the green canopy on either side. It was like entering a canyon between red sandstone walls as our path rose to give us a grandstand view of a waterfall leaping through what was virtually a doorway in the contorted rock. Traversing rightward from the path by a slippery step, we went through a narrow portal one at a time. It made a perfectly natural place to take a cramped seat, hence the name Sutor s Chair. As I stood inside the opening I saw at my hand in small, neatly-carved letters the name Allan Cunningham I tried hard to figure out what had caused this remarkable deep and narrow canyon to form. It seemed unlikely that normal flood water had done it. It is more like some of the melt-water channels I have seen such as Rumbling Bridge near Crook of Devon where water from a glacier wore down the rocks at their weakest point. If anyone knows the scientific explanation for Crichope I d love to hear it. 264

103 We followed a sandstone staircase of big slabs to by-pass the canyon and rejoined the path leading on, by ups and downs, to a narrow point where we could have crossed without difficulty to the other side by a mouldering footbridge. Instead we climbed to the gorge rim on the side we had been following, and once over a drystone wall walked easily on a greensward dotted with sheep and cattle right back to where we had left the car. 1 The part of the Linn described by the earlier Scots Magazine writer as a chapel, but known locally as the Sutor s Chair. The figure on the right is at the rocky seat formation where legend has it a cobbler repaired Covenanters shoes. Image copyright and description: Tom Weir Location Map 2 Covenanting Sites in Nithsdale, No Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, p 19 Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 64 Simpson, Rev. R. pp *Simpson, Rev. R. pp 243, 272, CROFTS Near Crossmichael, Dumfries and Galloway [83/84] NX Farm The road through Crofts Farm. Patrick McJore, a Covenanting fugitive, once lived here. Attribution: James Bell *Morton, A. S. p 230 *Wodrow, Rev. Robert. Volume IV. p The Scots Magazine (date unknown) 265

104 CROOK INN Scottish Borders [72] NT Inn The Crook Inn, one of many claimants to be the oldest inn in Scotland, it was once used as a hiding place for Covenanters

105 CROOKED BANK Near Tweedsmuir, Scottish Borders [72] NT Hill Crooked Bank, looking east-southeast towards Little and Great Knock. Just west of this point, and off the photo, there were three hollows known as Hunter s Holes, which John Hunter the Covenanter used as hiding places. He was finally tracied down and executed at the Devil s Beef Tub and buried in Tweedsmuir. The hollows seem to have been destroyed when the forest road was built. Attribution: Richard Webb Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p201 CROOKEDSTONE Near Glassford, South Lanarkshire [64] NS Field Burn near Crookedstone Farm. It was in this vicinity that William Gordon of Earlstoun was captured and shot on his way to the Battle of Bothwell Bridge. Attribution: Gordon Brown GLASSFORD - Places Index, Volume III, pp Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p

106 CROSSMICHAEL Near Castle Douglas, Dumfries and Galloway [84] NX Churchyard (Parish Church) An upright stone, 3 feet high, bound by iron supports, marks the grave of William Graham, tailor in the village who was captured while trying to escape from his mother s house and was instantly shot by Graham of Claverhouse on 15 th March The stone is situated on the south side of the churchyard and is dated William s brother, James Graham, was executed on 9 th December 1684 for his Covenanting beliefs. 1 Crossmichael Parish Church. William Graham s grave at Crossmichael. 1 Covenanting Sites. 268

107 HERE LYES WILLIAM GRAHAM WHO MAKEING HIS ESCAPE FROM HIS MOTHERS HOUSE WAS PURSUED AND TAKEN AND INSTANT- LY SHOT DEAD BY A PARTY OF CLAVER- HOUSE S TROOPS FOR Inscription on William Graham s grave. Reverse of William Graham s grave. HIS ADHE RENCE TO SCOTLANDS REFORMATION CO VENANTS NATION AL AND SOLEMN LEAGUE 1682 Inscription on reverse of William Graham s grave. OTHER COVENANTERS FROM THE PARISH OF CROSSMICHAEL James Garmarie was a Covenanter fugitive. James Bugloss was minister of this parish. He refused to take the oath of supremacy and was turned out of his parish as a result. Campbell, T. pp Location Map 1 Covenanting Sites in Dumfries and Galloway, No. 9 - Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, p 18 Love, Dane, The Covenanters and St John s Town of Dalry. Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. p 41 Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 64 Orr, Brian, J. *Thomson, Rev. J. H. Martyr Graves. pp

108 CRUFFELL Near Sanquhar, Dumfries and Galloway [71/77] NS Farm (no longer there) Cruffell - the home of Covenanter, Alexander Williamson once stood here. BURNFOOT - Places Index, Volume III, p 161 SANQUHAR - Places Index, Volume III, pp *Simpson, Rev. R. pp CULCAIGRIE Near Twynholm, Dumfries and Galloway [83/84] NX Farm Culcaigrie - home during Covenanting times of Covenanting fugitive Alexander Birnie. *Morton, A. S. p 226 *Wodrow, Rev. Robert. Volume IV. p

109 CULNAIGHTRIE Near Auchencairn, Dumfries and Galloway [84] NX Farm Culnaightrie Farm home during Covenanting times of Robert Maxwell. Attribution: Chris Newman Orr, Brian, J. CULQUHASEN Near Glen Luce, Dumfries and Galloway [77] NX Farm Culquhasen - home during Covenanting times of fugitive, Alexander Hunter, who was present at the Battle of Bothwell Bridge. *Morton, A. S. pp 175, 224 *Wodrow, Rev. Robert. Volume III. pp 181, 413. Volume IV. pp 22,

110 CULRAIN Near Bonar Bridge, Highland [21] NH Battle-field Site of the Battle of Carbisdale (27 th April 1650) between the Royalists, under the Marquis James Graham of Montrose and the Covenanters, under the charge of Colonel Archibald Strachan. The Covenanters won the battle and Montrose fled to Ardvreck Castle where he was arrested. Image copyright: the late Harry Jenkins and used with permission of his son Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. pp CULROSS Fife [65] NS Town Culross Abbey, Fife. 272

111 A cobbled street in Culross, the town where Rev. John Blackadder preached, and near the village where he was born. Another narrow street in Culross. Archbishop Leighton s house, Culross. Coat of arms outside Archbishop Leighton s house. 273

112 Conventicle site, near Culross. Rev. John Blackadder preached here. Rev. James Fraser of Brea became minister at Culross after the Revolution. BLAIRHALL - Places Index, Volume III, p 134 Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. pp 28, 47, 112 CULTEUCHAR HILL Near Forgandenny, Perth and Kinross [58] NO Hill The hill in the background is Culteuchar Hill, the site of a conventicle in October 1678 at which Andrew Brodie was killed. He is buried at Forgandenny. Attribution: James Allan Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p

113 CULVENNAN Near Crossmichael, Dumfries and Galloway [83/84] NX Farm Culvennan - home during Covenanting times of fugitive, James McJarrow and Alexander and William Gordon. Alexander was fined 600 in 1662 and William Gordon was executed in Edinburgh in *Morton, A. S. pp 94, CULZEAN Near Kirkoswald, South Ayrshire [70/76] NS Castle Culzean Castle the Castle as it stands today was built in 1772, but an earlier building was home, during Covenanting times, of the persecutor of the Covenanters, Sir Archibald Kennedy, who shot Gilbert McAdam at Kirkmichael. The Kennedy family owned Culzean until 1945 when they handed it over to the care of the National Trust for Scotland. Attribution: Dannie Calder Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. p 132 MAYBOLE - Places Index, Volume III, pp Orr, Brian, J

114 CUMBERHEAD Near Muirkirk, South Lanarkshire [71] NS Farm North Cumberhead Farm - A conventicle held near here in 1679 was invaded by Royalist soldiers and the Covenanters engaged in battle, fatally wounding General Thomas Dalziel of the Binns. Covenanter John Williamson was present at this skirmish. North Cumberhead Farm and its environs. Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. pp Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. pp 27, 65, 94,

115 CUMNOCK East Ayrshire [71] NS Old Graveyard In the Cemetery on the northern side of Barrhill Road in Cumnock is a stone monument to Alexander Peden, who died on 26 th January 1686 after a life of wandering and preaching for the Covenant. He was buried in a private aisle of Auchinleck Church but his body was dug up after six weeks by soldiers and conveyed to the gallows at Cumnock where his ashes are now buried. The graves of Simon Paterson and David Dun, hanged at Cumnock and Thomas Richard, shot by Capt. Douglas in 1685 are also situated in the graveyard. 1 Alexander Peden s memorial, Cumnock. The obelisk of Aberdeen granite erected in Cumnock old Cemetery in 1891 as a memorial to Alexander Peden. The memorial stands beside a headstone marking the spot where Peden was buried out of contempt by Royalist troops after they dug up his body from where it was originally laid to rest with the intention of hanging it from the gallows tree. 2 CUMNOCK The Covenanters Enclosure at the old graveyard in Cumnock has been receiving attention during the summer. The Peden and Richard stones, which should be standing vertically have, for some years, been slowly leaning over, to such an extent that we worried what would happen if they were suddenly to fall over. No doubt, breakage could occur, and an expensive repair or replacement would be required. However, the brothers Buchan, Harry and Tom - both bricklayers - came to the rescue. Both are very conscious of our heritage and local history, and Harry, who has served in the Cameronian Regiment, is obviously well aware of Covenanting history. The brothers dug out the threatened stones and set them in a new foundation of concrete, which should ensure that for many years to come they will be safe from breakage. Fortunately, the inscriptions are still very clear, - but I cannot say the same for the small stone to the other Cumnock Martyrs, David Dun and Simon Paterson, which is becoming badly eroded. It is said that Old Mortality re-cut the inscription on this ancient stone, and I fear that another stone-mason will, in the near future, have to do a similar job. 3 1 The Covenanters in Cumnock. 2 Covenanters Chronicle. Ardrossan: Guthrie Newspaper Group, January Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 53, September 1993, p 4 277

116 PEDEN Just before finalising the draft of this issue, I had a call from a Dr. Peden, who was on holiday from U.S.A. He is a native of Sanquhar, and is well aware of Covenanting history in general - and the Sanquhar Declaration by Cameron in particular. Although he has passed through Cumnock on many occasions on his frequent holidays here, he had never visited Peden s Grave in the town. By arrangement, I met him and his family there, and I showed him Peden s and other Covenanter graves in the old graveyard. Someone had told him that Peden s bones had been discovered in a cave some time ago, but I was able to point to the gravestone which confirms that The Prophet Peden was buried on the very spot we were visiting. I also pointed out the wording of the headstone which included Buried here out of contempt, - and explained the reason for this - that the dragoons had buried Peden s body on the site of the Gallows in Cumnock, - an ignominious grave for a devout and saintly divine. Dr. Peden and his family appeared to be impressed by the account of how the Cumnock people started to bury their dead near Peden s grave (such was the high esteem he was held in), and this resulted in the old graveyard becoming a hallowed burial place. Dr. Peden told me that there is an annual Peden Clan Gathering held in U.S.A. when hundreds of Pedens have a get-together. I hope to get further details of his meeting for a future issue. 1 PEDEN STONES, CUMNOCK These three stones and the nearby stones to Richard, Dun and Paterson have been receiving the skilled attention of volunteer member, Harry Buchan of Cumnock. The railed area which encloses the Covenanter graves has been cleared of weeds, and the stones cleared of moss, etc. The two hawthorn trees, re-planted in November, 1981 are now very well-established and are thrusting many branches. These have had to be trimmed slightly in their lower branches, so as to allow work to be carried out. We are grateful to Harry Buchan for his devotion and work. 2 1 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 53, September 1993, p 10 2 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 62, September 1996, p


118 HE RE LIES M r ALEXANDER PEDEN Faithful Minister of the Gospel som e time at Glenluce who departed this mortal life the 26 th January, 1686 And was raised after six weeks out of the Grauf, and buried here, out of Contempt. MEMENTO MORI Inscription on Peden s old gravestone. Rev. Alexander Peden s original gravestone. PEDEN CONVENTICLE, CUMNOCK 2011 marks the 325th anniversary of the death of Rev. Alexander Peden, one of the most significant ministers who came out in support of the Covenanters. To mark this the S.C.M.A., in association with the Cumnock Council of Churches (a group comprising members of the two Church of Scotland congregations in the town, Congregational, United Free and Baptist churches) is proposing a conventicle at the graveside on Barrhill Road, Cumnock, on Sunday 6th March 2011 at 3.00 pm. Prior to this a walk will take place from Auchinleck kirkyard to Cumnock, and after the conventicle refreshments will be served in the Church Hall. Alexander Peden was born in the parish of Sorn, the son of a farmer. He trained for the ministry and was inducted to New Luce church in Wigtownshire. He was outed in 1662 and thereafter spent many years preaching at various places across southern Scotland, Northern Ireland and northern England to Covenanters. He succumbed to ill health due to the privations endured, and 280

119 died at his brother s house, Tenshillingside Farm 1, on Auchinleck estate, which no longer exists, on 26 th January At first he was buried in secret in the Peden burial plot in Auchinleck kirkyard, but the soldiers discovered this, and three weeks later his corpse was dug up and carried into Cumnock, where they intended hanging it from the gallows tree as a mark of disrespect. However the local landowner s wife intervened, stating that the tree was for murderers, and not godly men such as Peden. Nevertheless, the soldiers buried him at the foot of the gallows tree out of contempt, according to the gravestone. There are three memorials to Peden in the cemetery, which was established around his grave. In the local museum can be seen Peden s walking stick as well as a few other relics. 2 HERE LIES the corpse of THOMAS RICHARD who was shot by Colonel James Douglas, for his adherence to the Covenanted Work of Reformation, on the 5 th day of April, Anno Halt Passenger! This stone doth shew to thee For what, by whom, and how I here did die, Because I alwa ys in my station Adhered to Scotland s Reformation And to our Sacred Covenants and laws Establishing the same which was the cause In time of Prayer I was by Douglas shot. Ah! Cruelty never to be forgot. Thomas Richard s grave. Inscription on Thomas Richard s grave. 1 Tenshillingside has now disappeared, but I found a reference to the Ten Shilling Side bridge - map ref. NS Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 105, February 2011, p 7 281

120 Grave of David Dun and Simon Paterson. Renewed (2002) grave. Image copyright: R. P. Missions and used with permission HeRe. LyeS. DAVID. DVN ADHeRANCe. TO. The AND. SIMON. PATeRS WORD. OF. GOD. AND ON. WHO. WAS. SHOT THe. COVeNANTeD IN. THIS. PLACe. BY WORK. OF. ReFORMA. A. PARTY. OF. HIGHL TION 1685 ANDeRS. FOR. THeIR Inscriptions on grave. 282

121 Reverse of grave. Image copyright (right): R. P. Missions and used with permission DUN & PATERSON STONE, CUMNOCK Member, David Roy, has compiled a list of work needing done to replace or repair a number of Covenanter memorials, and has prioritised this. High up on the list is the above stone in Cumnock. Being local to myself, I have taken a keen interest in this, and a mason has already visited the site and is preparing an estimate for a replacement stone in a more durable granite. Things are moving rather too slowly for my liking, but at least progress is being made. 1 DUN & PATERSON S GRAVESTONE Mention was made in the last newsletter that it was proposed to replace the Dun and Paterson stone at Cumnock in Ayrshire. An appeal in the local newspaper (which resulted in a rather good double page spread featuring yours truly and the association) plus letters to the local churches has resulted in a great response, and there is now half the cost donated or pledged. The sculptor has been commissioned and it is hoped that the new stone, which will be an exact copy of he original, will be erected in time for a conventicle that will be held at the site on 23 rd June at 3.00 pm. The inscription is very worn, so much so that the martyrs names can no longer be read. Donations have been received from Cumnock Round Table, Cumnock Baptist Church, Crichton West Parish Church, Old Cumnock Old Church, Cumnock Congregational Church, and a few interested individuals. The Lugar and Cumnock Orange Lodge are holding a sponsored walk in aid of funds for the project. The remainder of the cost is being paid for from S.C.M.A. funds. 2 1 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 78, February 2002, p 10 2 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 79, June 2002, p 6 283

122 DUN & PATERSON S MEMORIAL, CUMNOCK George Scott Quite a number of S.C.M.A. members attended the conventicle held at the Old Graveyard, Cumnock on 23 rd June, 2002, when they had the opportunity to view the granite replacement stone. The previous memorial, re-cut by Old Mortality was of sandstone, and this had eroded so badly that the inscription was virtually unreadable. I felt very privileged to have been present when the new stone was erected, just two days before the conventicle. By arrangement, I met the talented sculptor, Kevin Roberts of Patna. At the graveyard, and was able to witness the skill and hard work which goes into the erection of a gravestone which weighs over 2 cwts. Kevin and his helper, John, handled this with apparent ease, and my occasional prompts to assist were probably regarded as more of a hindrance than a help! Kevin was unable to park his transport near the site, and the stone, cement, sand, aggregate, water and heavy tools had to be lugged over 200 yards. Yet, within 90 minutes that heavy stone had been erected, stabilised and cleaned. Afterwards the surrounding area showed no traces of the necessary digging and concreting. Kevin has repaired or constructed quite a large number of Covenanter memorials on our behalf, and his work has always given satisfaction and pleasure. I feel that the Association is fortunate to be able to call on the services of such a dedicated professional. THE CONVENTICLE 23 rd JUNE 2002 When the considerable congregation arrived for the ceremony we found that the new stone had been draped in a tartan material. The officiating minister, Rev. Jason C. Boyd, declared that, as a Canadian, he had no previous experience of conventicles. However, he coped exceedingly well, and his friendly manner set the mood for the occasion. He acted as precentor and led the praise, - all time-honoured Psalms. S.C.M.A. President, Bill Niven, spoke eloquently about the Covenanters, and about the work of our Association. He then entered the railed Covenanters Enclosure and unveiled the new stone, which now sits side by side with its venerable predecessor. Readings were given by Dane Love, Secretary, and Margaret McIlvean, member. Later the sermon was delivered by Mr. Bobby Griffiths, a lay preacher, who confessed to an ignorance of the Covenanters in his youth. However, he had come to realise their great contribution to religious freedom, their courage, tenacity and, above all, their faith. The Benediction was pronounced by Rev. Norman Mackay, Cumnock Baptist Church. This was an uplifting and enjoyable occasion, and those attending were profuse in their appreciation. This project was partly funded by contributions from local churches and groups. 1 1 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 80, September 2002, pp

123 The Baird Institute [71] NS The Cowie or milk bowl with bullet hole, belonging to John Brown, Covenanter. Image copyright: Baird Institute, Cumnock and used with permission After family worship as usual between five and six o clock, Brown went out to dig peats, when he was suddenly surrounded by Claverhouse with three troops of horse. They took him back to his own house, and Claverhouse put some questions to him. Go to your prayers, said the ruffian, for you shall immediately die. Brown calmly knelt down and prayed. Thrice Claverhouse called out to him to cut short and have done. After he had ended, he said to his wife, who stood by with her infant in her arms, Now Isabel, the day is come of which I told you when I first spake of marriage to you. She replied, Indeed, John, in this cause I can willingly part with you. This, said he, is all I desire. I have no more to do but die. He kissed his wife and children and blessed them, and stood ready to die. Claverhouse ordered six of his dragoons to fire. Impressed by the saintliness of the man they hesitated, upon which Claverhouse drew a pistol from his holster and led the shooting. One of the bullets went wide and pierced and split a bowie or wooden milk bowl which was standing on the still of the cottage window. It is probable that the wide shot was deliberate. When Brown had fallen Claverhouse turned, with the pistol yet reeking at touch-hole and muzzle, to the wife and said What thinkest thou of thy husband now, woman? I ever thought much good of him, she said, and as much now as ever. 1 JOHN BROWN S MILKBOWL At the suggestion of Mr. and Mrs. Darch of Benllech, Wales, I wrote to the Church of Scotland H.Q. in Edinburgh, requesting that the above Milkbowl, which has been in the possession of the Church for several years, be released into the keeping of the Baird Museum, Cumnock, which was recently enlarged and renovated. Almost by return of post I had a letter from Rev. A. Gordon McGillivray, Principal Clerk. He had been in touch with Rt. Rev. Dr. James L. Weatherhead, Moderator of the General Assembly, and I was informed that the Church of Scotland would be willing to release the Milkbowl for long-term display in the Cumnock Museum. 1 The Baird Institute, Cumnock 285

124 I was amazed at the speed at which this decision was reached, and I contrasted it with the procrastinations and obstacles which were placed in our path by Durham Cathedral when we applied to place a simple wee memorial on the grass within their precincts (see last newsletter). I volunteered to travel to Edinburgh to uplift this unique artefact, but it is not quite so clearcut as that! There is a wee snag which will delay the transfer. The matter has been referred to the Legal Department of the Church of Scotland for processing, - and we all know what lawyers are like! However, we know that the transfer will eventually come through, and that the Milkbowl will be on show at Cumnock some time in the future. It will then have returned to the district of its origin. 1 The following is the list of descendants of John Brown, taken from the family records:- JOHN BROWN, carrier, born 1640; shot at Priesthill, Lanark, by order of Graham of Claverhouse, 11 th May JOHN BROWN, his son, born 1680, died 1765 at Kailzie, Peebles. JOHN BROWN, his son, farmer at Ingraston, Peebles, born 1744, died 4 th February 1815, aged 71, buried in Traquair. Mary Lambert, his spouse, born 1747; died at Traquair 26 th September 1792, aged 45, buried Traquair. WILLIAM BROWN, their eldest, born 1772, farmer in Ingraston, Peebles; died 11 th January 1880, aged 58, buried in West Linton, Peebles. 2 Cumnock Covenanting Flag at Baird Institute, Cumnock. 3 Image copyright: Baird Institute, Cumnock and used with permission 1 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 55, June 1994, p 5 2 The Baird Institute, Cumnock 3 Another Cumnock Covenanter flag is preserved in the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow 286

125 THE COVENANTING FLAG OF CUMNOCK The Covenanting Flag in the Baird Institute is the most valuable historical memorial to be found in Cumnock. Its date goes back to the great struggle waged in Scotland on behalf of religious freedom. Who made it? is a question that can never be answered. We can only say it must have been fashioned by loving supporters of the Covenant. The earliest tradition regarding it is that it was carried by the Covenanting army at the battle of Drumclog in 1679, when Claverhouse was forced to acknowledge himself beaten. Where it lay during the 140 years which followed the Revolution of 1688, it is not possible to say. But it is known to have been discovered in the attic of a house in Cumnock, occupied by a medical practitioner, by name Dr. Kirkland, some time about Its value and interest were at once recognised. In the public processions held at the time of the Reform Bill, it was frequently borne, as if to proclaim the kinship of the Covenanters of the 17 th century with the Reformers of The flag has suffered a good deal from the ravages of time. In the upper corner there is to be seen a beautiful St. Andrew s Cross on a blue ground. A scroll made of frail gilt paper is placed across the centre of the flag. On it, after the name Cumnock, ran a device now sadly defaced-pro Religione et Patria-For Religion and the Fatherland. After Dr. Kirkland s death, the flag passed into the possession first of Mr. Hugh McGeachin and then of Mr. John Baird, the founder of this Institute, by whom it was left in the custody of Mr. Douglas McGeachin. Some years before his death, Mr. McGeachin transferred it to the keeping of the Rev. John Warrick, who in 1925 handed it over to the Baird Trustees, under conditions noted on the other side. A second Cumnock Covenanting Flag, discovered likewise by Dr. Kirkland, was presented to him to the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow University, where it now is. Cumnock therefore, has the unique honour of being the birthplace of two Covenanting Banners. There are not more than a dozen Covenanting Flags in existence. CONDITIONS ACCEPTED BY THE BAIRD TRUSTEES, UNDER WHICH THEY BECOME CUSTODIERS OF THE CUMNOCK COVENANTING FLAG 1. That the flag be placed in a suitable glass case, so that the whole of it is displayed to view, and kept in the Museum of the Baird Institute- there to be maintained in good order by the Trustees. 2. That the public be permitted to visit it without charge at all reasonable times on every lawful day on which the Institute is open. 3. That the Flag be insured for Two Hundred Pounds against fire and theft and that in the event of it being destroyed by fire or stolen, the Trustees will reimburse themselves for all their outlay, and hand the balance of the insurance money to the Trustees of the Cumnock Hospital for investment the revenue of such investment to be devoted to the purposes of the said Hospital. 4. That in the event of the Baird Institute ceasing to exist, the Flag be presented to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland in Edinburgh and be preserved by them as their own property in their Museum. 5. That a framed printed card, setting forth (1) the history of the Flag and (2) the conditions under which it is made over to the Baird Trustees be placed within the case, and a similar card placed outside the case where visitors may take it up and read it. 1 1 The Baird Institute, Cumnock. 287

126 THE PROPHET, THE SUFFERING AND OUTLAWED CONVENTICLES Many tragic slayings took place during the bloodiest time of the Covenanting period, the years between 1685 and 1688 which became known as The Killing Times. Here are the stories of just a notable few and the grim details of their livers help to give an understanding of the extent of the persecution and cruelty which occurred. ALEXANDER PEDEN (Sorn) The life of Alexander Peden can be summarised as follows: His life was one long story of struggle and escape in which indomitable faith shone ever clearer, the longer he lived. Alexander Peden was born at Auchencloigh in the Parish of Sorn in He was educated at the village school and at Glasgow University and became a schoolmaster in Tarbolton around (No trace of Peden is visible in Tarbolton but beside the church door stands a stone commemorating 18-year-old Covenanter William Shillilaw, who was shot to death at Woodhead Farm). Peden s school duties also included being session clerk to the church. Peden turned to the ministry and was ordained in 1660 and given charge of New Luce in Galloway. About three years later, the king passed an act of Parliament decreeing that ministers ordained since 1649 would require to have their appointments confirmed by bishops. Almost 400 Covenanting ministers, including Peden, refused to agree to this imposition of Episcopacy. The majority of Covenanting ministers found other work, hoping for the ruling to be reversed, but a few like Peden realised it was their calling to preach the Gospel and make Presbyterianism available to the people. Ministers like Peden who continued preaching had to do so in great secrecy in homes, barns and in the open air. These meetings were called conventicles. As Peden was so highly thought of locally, he in particular was pursued by troops. He was captured in 1673 and confined to the Bass Rock in the Firth of Forth. After five long years on that barren rock Peden was taken to Edinburgh for trial. Along with 60 others, he was banished to Virginia in the United States for the rest of his life. While changing ships in London Peden and the others were released by the new captain, who supported their principles of religious freedom. Peden returned to Scotland in 1679, just after the battle of Bothwell Bridge, in which the Covenanters had been heavily defeated. He was soon preaching again all over the district, despite being heavily pursued by troops. Peden had to move around constantly, sleeping rough in barns, caves or in the open. The exploits of Alexander Peden became legendary and he became known as The Prophet for his prediction of future happenings. A great many legends exist about Peden. One story told locally is about him sleeping rough in the open air near a farm in the district. While Peden slept at night a violent rainstorm spread across the countryside. Legend has it that the ground around Peden had been left miraculously untouched by the rain while elsewhere all was wet. By 1685 Peden was 60 years old and had been a fugitive for 22 years. He made his way back to his native area around Sorn, Mauchline and Muirkirk, where he slept at many local farms, including Garfield, Meadowhead and Priesthill. Finally, Peden went to his brother s farm of Tenshillingside in the Parish of Mauchline, not far from his birthplace of Auchencloigh. He had hoped to return to Auchencloigh but died before he reached it. Peden was buried at Auchinleck churchyard but six weeks later troops discovered the grave and dug up his body. They took the body to the gallows tree at Barrhill, Cumnock, where they intended to hang it. 288

127 The Earl of Dumfries prevented the troops from carrying out this terrible act, as he feared it would provoke rioting among the people of the district. As a mark of contempt, the troops buried Peden at the foot of the gallows. Local supporters erected a headstone at the burial site. Years later, when the town needed a new burial ground, the area around Peden s grave was consecrated and became Cumnock Old Cemetery. In 1891 an obelisk of Aberdeen granite was erected as a memorial to Alexander Peden. It can still be seen today beside the original headstone. Also commemorated in Cumnock old Cemetery are Thomas Richard, a 70-year-old Covenanter arrested at his farm in Muirkirk and shot in Cumnock in 1685, and David Dun and Simon Paterson, shot in the same year. JOHN BROWN (Muirkirk) John Brown of Priesthill near Muirkirk was a Christian carrier, bringing back to people on isolated farms news of the struggles going on. Many of the people to whom John Brown brought news joined together as a loyal band of Covenanters. Priesthill became one of the strongholds of the Covenanting cause and Brown s home was often visited by leaders of the movement. In 1682, John Brown married Isabel Weir. The marriage was performed by Alexander Peden, who at the wedding made a strange prophecy: Isabel you have got a good man, you will not enjoy him long. Prize his company and keep linen by you to be his winding sheet, for you will need it when you are not looking for it and it will be a bloody one. Peden s prophecy proved accurate. Times were becoming increasingly dangerous. Many local Covenanters had been killed and it was dangerous for Brown to continue his work as a carrier. On May 1, Brown went out into the hills to cut peat. He and the young man with him were soon surrounded by troops and taken back to Priesthill to be interrogated by John Graham of Claverhouse. Brown refused to swear an oath of loyalty to the king, saying he knew no king but Jesus Christ. Claverhouse was furious and lost his temper but Brown remained calm. He knelt and prayed and then kissed his wife and family before facing Claverhouse and his troops. Tradition has it that Brown s words made such an impression on the troops that they refused to execute him and Claverhouse himself fired, killing Brown in front of his wife and family. Friends soon came to console Isabel Brown and her husband was buried near where he had fallen. The grave is marked by a flat stone and a monument has been erected to his memory. Both are enclosed by a stone wall. The grave can be found about three-quarters of a mile east of Priesthill farm, which is off the Muirkirk-Strathaven road some two miles north of Muirkirk. 1 1 Covenanters Chronicle. Ardrossan: Guthrie Newspaper Group, January

128 THE FLAGS THEY WAVED IN DEFIANCE OF THE KING IN THE BATTLE TO PROTECT WHAT THEY BELIEVED IN With such a rich Covenanting history in Cumnock and Doon Valley, there are of course a number of Covenanting relics which have survived in the district. Many of the Covenanting banners were captured and burned by the common hangman at Edinburgh after the Battle of Bothwell Bridge and although fewer than a dozen Covenanting banners exist in Scotland today, four are associated with this district and Cumnock and Doon Valley is home to three of them. CUMNOCK COVENANTING BANNER Like the Mauchline Covenanting Banner, Cumnock Covenanting Banner is of immense historical importance. The banner is on permanent display in the District History centre and Baird Institute Museum in Cumnock. It is made of cream-coloured silk and in the upper left corner is a St. Andrew s cross. The banner is about six feet square and a scroll made of frail gilt paper is placed across the centre. It bears the inscription; Cumnock Pro Religione et patria (Cumnock For religion and the Fatherland). It is not known who made the banner, but it was clearly made by loving supporters of the Covenant. Tradition has it that the Cumnock Covenanting Banner was carried at the Battle of Drumclog in What happened to the banner after Drumclog appears to be a mystery but it is known to have turned up some 150 years later, around 1830, in the attic of a house in Cumnock occupied by a local doctor, Dr. Kirkland. The historical importance of the banner was immediately recognised. It was frequently used in public processions in Cumnock during the 1830s by political reformers fighting for the right to vote. These reformers felt a kinship with the fight of the Covenanters. After the death of Dr. Kirkland, the banner passed into the possession of John Baird, founder of the Baird Institute. It then passed through the custody of various local men before being given a permanent home in the Baird Institute in The banner has suffered the ravages of time. The silk became very weak and fragmented and infested with moth cocoons. In 1979 Cumnock and Doon Valley District Council sent the banner for treatment at the Textile Conservation unit in Edinburgh. The moth cocoons have now been removed and the silk washed and straightened. The banner is now sewn onto hardboard with all the fabrics and threads used dyed to match the original banner. Cumnock should be proud of the banner. The following lines describe the historical importance. Old and tattered as thou art, Little heeded, little known, Thou didst play a valiant part In the struggle long bygone, And our boasted liberty, Partly purchased was by thee. The Cumnock Covenanting Banner has been admired by many thousands of visitors from all over the world since being put on permanent display at the Baird Institute in 1980 following the conservation treatment. 1 1 Covenanters Chronicle. Ardrossan: Guthrie Newspaper Group, January

129 BAIRD INSTITUTE MUSEUM, CUMNOCK The museum in Cumnock town centre has recently undergone an upgrade, and is due to be opened on Saturday 25 th July. The artefacts on display in the museum will be re-presented, and the story of the Covenanters is one aspect of the museum that is being promoted. The museum has the Cumnock parish Covenanting banner on display, as well as a walking stick that was the property of Rev. Alexander Peden. As a result of the refurbishment works, the museum is delighted to have acquired the loan of Rev. Alexander Peden s mask, which he wore to hide his identity whilst on the moors. Described by the museum as iconic and nationally important, the mask is usually kept by the National Museum of Scotland, so members who live in the south-west may wish to visit Cumnock to see it more readily. 1 PEDEN S MASK ON DISPLAY Rev. Alexander Peden, the famous Covenanter minister who was outed from his church at New Luce in Wigtownshire and who was eventually buried at Cumnock in Ayrshire, used to have a mask which he would wear when the soldiers were pursuing him, in order to disguise who he was. This mask has survived since that time, and is protected as one of the prize exhibits by the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. However, for three months this year the mask has been on display at the Baird Institute in Cumnock, on loan from the museum. It will be on display until October, and if anyone in the west of the country has not seen it, this will be a good chance to view it closer to home. The museum service has also commissioned artist Justin Wilson to manufacture a replica of the original, which is also on display, and which will remain at Cumnock when the original returns to Edinburgh. The mask is made from sheepskin with feathers around the eyes, and bristles for a beard and hair. A very gruesome looking object, the mask is a tangible object that indicates the struggles that the Covenanters had to bear. The Baird Museum also has Cumnock s Covenanter banner on display, as well as a walking cane that belonged to Peden, John Brown of Priesthill s porridge bowl, a lock of hair and clothing from the Covenanters shot at Corsgellioch Hill, and part of the original Old Mortality stone that marked the graves there. If you haven t seen these items, why not pop in - the museum is open on Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays from 11 am to 5 pm. Access is free. Tel, for further information, and to check whether or not the original mask is still on show there, or has been returned to Edinburgh. 2 AULD INNS AND COVENANTERS In my home town of Cumnock there used to be an old inn known as the Blue Tower, which was used by the dragoons as a place of imprisonment when in the area. The Rev. David Houston, a notable Covenanter, had been captured by the soldiers and was being transported towards Edinburgh for trial. On the way he and his guards stayed overnight at the Blue Tower. Word reached the local Covenanters who managed to spring his release the following day, at the Bello Path to the east of the town. 3 1 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 100, June 2009, p 9 2 Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 101, September 2009, pp Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 62, September 1996, p 4 291

130 OTHER COVENANTERS FROM THE PARISH OF CUMNOCK George Crawford was executed at Edinburgh. Margaret Dun, sister of David Dun, was killed near Dalgig Farm when returning from a conventicle with Marion Cameron, Richard Cameron s sister and another friend. John Gemill and James Mirrie perished in the Crown of London shipwreck at Deerness. Rev. John Cunningham was an outed minister of Cumnock parish. Barr, J. pp Campbell, T. pp How and Why the Struggle Began and In Old Mortality s Footsteps - Foreword and Introduction, Volume I, pp 1-2, The Killing Times. Love, D. Scottish Covenanter Stories. pp , , , Love, Dane. The Covenanter Encyclopaedia. pp OCHILTREE- Places Index, Volume III, pp Orr, Brian, J. Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association Newsletter, No. 80, September 2002, front cover Simpson, Rev. R. pp *Simpson, Rev. R. pp 96-97, 133 *Thomson, Rev. J. H. Martyr Graves. pp CUPAR Fife [59] NO Churchyard (Old and St. Michael of Tarvit Parish Church) Here lies interred the Heads of LAUR C E HAY and ANDREW PIT ULLOCH who Suffered martyrdom at EDIN R Jul y 13 th 1681 for adhering to the word of GOD, & Scotlands covenanted work of Reformation, and also one of the hands of DAVID HACKSTON of Rathillot who was m ost cruell y murdered at EDIN R Jul y 30 th 1680 for the same cause Grave of Covenanters, Laurence Hay, Andrew Pitulloch and David Hackston, Cupar. Inscription on Covenanters grave. 292

131 Reverse of Covenanters grave Our persecutors fill d with rage Their brutish fury to aswage Took heads & hands of martyrs off That they might be the peoples scoff, They Hackst ons body cutt asunder And set it up a worlds wonder In several places to proclaim These monsters gloryd in their shame. RE-ERECTED Jul y 13 th Inscription on reverse of Covenanters grave. 293

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